- Title – The Kano State of Audu Bako.
- Copyright Statement
- Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
– Police Career and Family
– His Father.
– His Ministries
- Water supply and irrigation
- Roads construction
- Administrative buildings
- Kano State Television System
- Rural Electrification Board
- Educational Development
- Health facilities
- Commerce and Industry
- Social welfare
– The price of their efforts
This work is dedicated to
Haruna, my father who illness upon fitness, prod me.
Amina, my mother who, weakness upon weakness bore me.
Zainab, my partner who progress or regress adore me.
My siblings, who brothers and sisters love me.
I wish to express my gratitude to the following bodies for releasing information materials.
Cabinet office, Kano State; Nigeria Police Force Headquarters, Radio Nigeria Kaduna; National Archives Kaduna; Kano State Ministries of: Information; Works and Housing; Agriculture; and Education; KASEPPA; The New Nigerian Newspapers; Bayero University Library; Kashim Ibrahim Library, ABU; and Police College, Kaduna.
I also wish to thank Alhaji Yusuf Maitama Sule, Dan Masanin Kano, Alhaji Inuwa Dutse, Engr. Salihi Iliyasu; Alhaji Muhammadu Ayyuba, Magajin Garin Kazaure; Alhaji Hussaini Adamu, the Emir of Kazaure; the Late Arc. Balarabe Ismail; Alhaji Mukhtar Adnan, Sarkin Ban Kano; Alhaji Isa Gambo Dutse; Alhaji Mohammad Ibrahim and Alhaji Tanko Yakasai for granting me interviews. May I also recognize Prof. Isa Hashim for editing this work.
I also acknowledge the Sacrifices of my brother, Arc. Shehu Lawal Bello, who’s time, energy and resources served as the fuel for this work. Also many thanks to Mr. Idika Ogbu of Finetex Limited Kaduna, who helped to typeset the work.
I wish to express my appreciation to the family members of Alhaji Audu Bako; Hajiya Ladi, Alhaji Rabiu Bako, Hajiya Fati Wara, Alhaji Abubakar and Alhaji Kabiru Audu Bako.
These and others too numerous to mention have contributed to the compilation of this material.
Those who do not see their namesshould please forgive the omission, which happened as a result of their large number and not as a result of the quality of their contribution.
Ba ka Iyawa
Ba a yaba ma”
Above is a popular Hausa adage that aptly described leadership, it generally means a leader can never satisfy all the yearnings of the people he leads. In some cases, Leaders are revered only after they might have left the scene. When it had become glaringly evident that incumbents are falling below set records.
Audu Bako, first Governor of Kano State is one such victim, who’s name had suffered considerable neglect. His leadership which ended 21 years ago, still remains the best of what Kano State has to offer both to indigens and Tourists alike.
In this few pages, we have tried to sum up what Audu Bako was able to accomplish as the Governor of Kano State in the seven years of his tenure. I would however wish to express that human shortcomings have checked my ability to probe some areas a lot of people might consider very essential. I hope by this pages to bring back the deprived Glory of Audu Bako to the face of Kano. I would expect more respect and recognition to the name that today only appears when questions like “who made it”? are asked.
I must state that in the course of my research, I came across difficulties that should not obtain in our society, documents that are just 20 years old are mostly missing, it was evident that frequent changes of government offices contributed to this, but I would suggest more care to documents for use by future generations.
A Governor’s Youth
Audu or Bawa as called by his father, was the second of the seven children born of Alhaji Bako. His siblings include; Amadu, Mairamu, Balarabe, Sani, Amina and Rabiu in that order. He was born on 24th of November 1924 at the police barracks in Kaduna. His mother Dije was from Mariri on the outskirts of Kano.
He was born a clever and innovative child who benefitted from his father’s rich library, for, he learnt to read and write before reaching the age of six. Children were normally sent to school at the age of seven, but he broke that record, he wrote a note to his father in English while still six, the note reads” please dad i want to go to school”. Mallam Bako was amazed by what the boy wrote, so he sent him to school in the same year 1930. Kaduna Government school was famous even then, that was probably why the child of the highest ranking African police officer was sent there. He was sent along with three friends, Yusuf Dantsoho, Garba and Dada. The other friend Adamu was sent to another school. In the company of his friends, Audu proved to be a leader even then. He joined the boy scouts and rose to be the scout master of his school, he also played various games including football and hockey very well. He was a very good athlete.
A regular day in the life of young Audu began at 5a.m with Subhi prayers as with other members of the family. After breakfast at 6am, Audu has to “double up“ the five miles stretch between his home and school. Immediately after school, in the afternoon, he returns for a quick lunch and proceeds for Islamic lessons, earlier with his father but in later years with one Mallam Hamza. The lesson ends very close to the time of sunset prayers, almost 7pm. By the time he eats dinner, he mostly goes straight to bed. This tight schedule, was interspersed with the boy-scouting activities he was deeply engaged in.
In the primary school, Audu was said to be a recluse, he hardly opens up to other pupils, though he was engaged in so many activities which drew so many pupils around him. He can also be said to be an all rounder of sorts as he shows his interest in almost every sphere. He never failed an examination while in the primary school. He also completed the holy Qur’an with his teacher Mallam Hamza.
All these efforts endeared Audu to his father who is both a secular and Islamic scholar. He is said to carry Audu to most of his functions and outings, as a matter of fact, Mallam Bako takes Audu with him to his office where the police officers, mostly expatriates began to get used to Audu, and consider him the right replacement for his ageing father who sooner or later is bound to hand over his letter of resignation.
Audu successfully completed his primary education and immediately proceeded to Zaria middle school in 1937.he continued to exert his intellectual supremacy over his colleagues. In the meantime, Mallam Bako was honoured with a medal by the governor of Northern Nigeria, Sir Gawain Bell,as a token of recognition of his professional excellence. The award was also meant to douse his eagerness to retire, by the time he retired in 1938, Audu was only in form 2, but the pressure was so tense on Mallam Bako that he had to promise to send his son to replace him in the Force before his resignation could be accepted.
Audu completed Zaria middle school in 1942 with good grades, his dream job had been a postman, he was always enchanted by their shiny uniform and their motorcycle for the distribution of the days mail.
A few days after Audu had shown his father his successful examination papers, he was given a note to Mr. Farrel the then commissioner of police, who in turn sent him to the police college. The commandant, Mr. Clinton received him and sent him to a class with young men writing exams, Audu joined them in the exam and subsequently passed. When the results came out, he was invited back to the police college and taken to the store, he was given uniforms and his head shaved clean. It was only then that Audu realised that his dream job of being a postman has been shattered, and to worsen matters, the job he hated most was the one he was forced into, as the force was filled with illiterates who walked barefooted. Another thing he hated was the uniforms which looked like female dresses. Young Audu thought of deserting many times, but his father, knowing fully well Audu hated the job, kept him watched for over a month.
POLICE CAREER AND FAMILY
Audu enlisted into the police force on the 24th of June 1942, his dislike for the police job continued unabated. In those days, respect for parents and elders far overshadows ones interests, Audu had no choice but to continue.
At the tender age of 18, he was not as big and strong as his mates, he could not carry the normal rifle due to its weight, the force had to make a special wooden rifle for him. In one of his early experiences in the force, Audu recalled vividly how one Hassan Alawa tricked him, but he outwitted the former. Hassan was with Audu on assignment at Kaduna Railway station. The former being an elderly policeman advised Audu, who`s first time it was to come on relief duty, that he should find a comfortable place and relax. Audu judged this offer and decided to go round and hide. Moments later, a supervisor came and was told by Hassan that Audu was sleeping on duty, lucky Audu came to report that he was awake.
Audu got married in 1943, at the age of 19, to Lami, a girl he had been seeing at Kabba road, where he attended the Islamic school of Mallam Hamza. His two friends, Yusuf and Dada also married to the same family. Lami gave birth to Hajara, Fati, Abubakar and Hauwa. Hajara was born a year later in 1944, when Audu was still in Kaduna. She was the apple of her father`s eye, the arrival two years later of her sister Fati, made Audu a happier dad. Shortly after getting married, Audu decided to be a farmer. After a few trials in Kaduna, he purchased a farm at Kasuwar Magani where he goes to spend his weekends, it was from this period that he cultivated the habit of going on annual leave during the rainy season, to enable him pay special attention to his crops. It was the success of this farm that gave birth to the Buruku farm which he bought in 1956. His family had by then expanded. In 1949, he had married another wife named Kaduna, she was to mother only Dr. Lawal before she died in 1950.After her death and in the same year, Audu married Ladi, the woman that shared the government house with him. He was then a sub-inspector, he met her while on posting to Zaria. Ladi’s love for him made her defy a lot of attempts to separate them. And she bore him six children. Nasiru was her first, he was born while they were serving at Ilorin. However, Lami, who was still at Kaduna gave birth to Abubakar a year later in 1952. All her children were born in Kaduna, but no two children of Ladi were born in the same place. Kabiru her second child was born in Minna in 1953, and Ibrahim was born in Zaria when Audu was an ASP IN 1955. He was between 1955-58 at various times in Kano, Kaduna, Sokoto and Jos. It was in Jos in 1958 that Hadiza was born. Two years later, the birth of Sa’a portended his promotion to the rank of DSP. While in Kaduna and a rain of promotions afterwards; acting SP 1961, SP, Acting SSP and SSP all in 1962; acting ACP and ACP in 1964. He was posted as head of N.A. police, administration and training in 1964.
In 1966, he was ag.DCP and DCP. Audu’s rapid promotion is an indication of the kind of service he rendered to his country and also a result of excellence achieved through courses at home and abroad. His last child was Zainab, born 1967. In the whole of his careers a policeman, he stayed in no station for two years consecutively without being transferred. His wife recalled vividly how they were transferred out of Kano when they had not even unpacked. On how the children’s education fared, they were fixed into schools permanently, so that on vacation they join their parents in whichever duty post they were.
Audu infact had planned to leave the police force in 1954 but providence stopped him, he was appointed to go to Britain’s Metropolitan police training school. This course further elicited the genius in Audu for he picked an immediate interest in Law, and lucky for him, he attended six courses in the next eight years, this include; Forensic science course, Britain, 1955, senior police officers course Ryton UK, 1958, executive officers course in Nigeria, 1959, and Metropolitan N.4 district directing staff course UK in 1962.
As a result of his accomplishments, he became a lecturer at Law at the police college Kaduna, like father like son one could say, he was also appointed by the FG member of the Nigeria peace delegation that met in Niamey under the auspices of the OAU consultative committee on Nigeria crisis to discuss peace moves.
Audu was appointed governor of Kano state in 1967, the news met him in his farm on a Sunday morning. He had been on leave tending his farm as was his wont during the rainy season. Two things came to Audu’s mind when he saw his orderly and children coming to see him, either that his ageing father had died or Ojukwu had been caught, so the information caught him unawares that he was appointed governor of the new Kano state, the second largest business center in the whole country. He narrated hoe he went to Lagos and at the airport saw a long car with a flag waiting for him, he was reluctant to get in, he said. The bespectacled governor also remembered that he could not eat for two days after the appointment because of anxiety. He did not anticipate any problems in Kano, as the Emir, Alhaji Ado Bayero was his student at the Kaduna police college, and the people are open minded and business orientated. And best of all, his maternal ancestry traces to Gezawa in Kano, his maternal grandmother married at Mariri, where his mother was born, and where his father on tour met and married her. So he came to Kano happy and Kano accepted him with open arms.
The governors maiden address which was delivered on the 30th of march 1968, was full of dreams and plans for the nascent Kano and promises of better conditions of living. It was modest in a sense as everything that he planned and promised was within the means of the state, even at hat time when Kano depended on its agriculture, as petroleum was still a new name in Nigeria.
In the same year, Audu erected a chart inside the government house to indicate his projects and mark their completion, he was said to have paid much attention to this chart up to the end of his administration.
Kano expanded under Audu Bako like a balloon to become the cynosure of the whole country. The eleven other governors all found time to visit Kano to see what the whole fuss about development was, and they all went back satisfied. At one occasion, Brigadier Adebayo, the governor of western state said when he visited Kano “I am impressed with the rate of development in all sectors in Kano, Kano state has won my heart and the heart of the people of western state. What our state must continue to do is to assist each other and other states economically and socially” 21/5/70.
Hear what chief J.E Adetoro, Fed. commissioner for industry had to say of Kano when he visited “growing number of industries in Kano greater than any other state” 19/4/73. UN official, Mr Uswatti Aratchi, and Mr Andemichael of Economic commission of Africa, on a visit, said “Road construction in Kano could be compared to that of any developed nation” 25/9/73.
The name of Kano had transcended the boarders of black Africa, people from all over the world want to share the Kano mystery. Between January 1973 to April 1974 alone, foreign visitors paid a visit to Kano state on 32 occasions from across the continents of the world. Most of them heads of government and special envoys.
AUDU BAKO’S DISPOSITION
Audu is a level-headed and easy-going, others cited him as simple and funny, he becomes intimate with anyone that comes across him, he calls his officers by their first name and asks for the health of their families by name. People who worked with him said they loved him, as he is not proud, he treats them as mates. An event was recollected in which Audu went to a construction site and insults the labourers in a loud voice, when they all looked up surprised, he said, the insult is his recompense as labourers insult him in his absence. When told nobody had insulted him, he says the insult remains reserved to fall on anybody that insults him. The governor usually remains at the site for long hours, talking one-to-one with the construction workers and discussing their problems. In another event, Audu was at tiga with officers on tour and refuses for lunch to be cooked, he wanted to see who breaks down first. Some staffers went into the farm and started plucking garden eggs to eat, when he sighted them, he shouted thief’ and started to pursue them and everybody laughed it off. He is also said to personally assist staff whenever they have problems. Cases like these made him a subject of love and administration. Audu would drive his own car and go round Kano in the day time, and at night would go with one of his commissioners, join groups discussing, so that they know the grudges of people with a view to solving them. Audu remained the same up to the end of his life. Before he died at his farm in Danmarke which he tends alongside other labourers, he sold vegetable to the construction workers at Bakalori dam site.
He had written two books, “Guide to N. A. Police duties” and “History of Northern Nigeria Police”. He was a recipient of the Nigeria Police Medal NPM.
MALLAM BAKO (HIS FATHER)
The Late District Head of Sabon gari, Mallam Bako, was from Argungu in Kebbi State. He was born around the year 1878. When colonialists visited Argungu, they needed a guide out, so the emir gave them Bako, they further pleaded with the emir to give them the boy to take care of their horses.
Besides taking care of their horses, his bosses realised his intelligence and directed him to join the police, which he did on the 5th of October 1903, he was to spend 35 years before retiring as the most senior African on the force.
Within a year of joining the force, he was promoted to the rank of sergeant and in 1907, he became a sergeant major. He was on the forefront in the establishment of Kaduna town itself, he was still a sergeant when the force moved from Dungurum to Kaduna, in fact he was said to be the person that planted the flag of the colonialists in Kaduna. It was also said that he planted most of the mango trees in the police barracks. In 1915 he was promoted Regimental Sergeant Major RSM.
Mallam Bako later became a major instructor at the police college until he retired in 1938. His quest for education was probably informed by the same intelligence he exhibited on the force, for he had learnt to read, write and type even before joining the force. By 1920, he visit learned Mallams far and wide to learn various aspects of Islam, he was said to have the richest library in the whole Kaduna, he became proficient in many areas. Medals he wore include; African General service, Africa Police Medal, 1936 Jubilee medal, Colonial Police and fire brigade holding service and good conduct with two bars.
After retirement, his proficiency in Law earned him the prestigious position of president, Kaduna mixed court in 1940, where he continued to prove his worth, the court progressed so much that Mr McCullum, the administrator for Kaduna, attributed all the success to Mallam Bako.
In recognition of his achievements, the Emir of Zazzau, Alhaji Muhammadu Jafaru, turbaned him the district head of Sabon garin Kaduna. He was a first class policeman, learned Muslim, and traditional ruler. He died in 1967.
When Kano state was born on may 27th 1967 along with eleven other states, they were born on the edge of a crisis that was to remain for 30 months. The civil war which started only three days after the creation of the states virtually turned them into a still birth. As government was immediately diverted of attention by the war. Even commissioners were not appointed until eleven months later. For the eleven months then, states remained mere shadows, they do not execute projects, they were answerable to the Interim Administration Council based in Kaduna. As a matter of fact, even the budget of 1968/69 was drawn for them by the council.
By 1970 when the war ended, it was evident that Kano had already started the action that was planned for the whole country before other states. About three dams have been constructed, and road projects started by the government of Northern Nigeria have been completed.
As a matter of record, Audu Bako’s Kano, saw within its seven years of existence such development that no other state has been able to achieve, this became so due to many factors, but most of all the quality of the governor heading the state. A man who believe only in action. He is decisive, honest and dedicated to whatever course he pursues.
In February 1968, while speaking to Dan Agbese of the New Nigerian, he said of his appointment as the governor of Kano state “I am prepared to take up the challenge and I will explore all the resources at my disposal to build a virile and enviable state”. He also said; “I would not expect any reward for my work as military governor, I have a duty and that duty is to serve my people and my country. The satisfaction I derive from discharging my duty faithfully and honestly is my greatest reward. Expectation of reward for everything is bound to reduce peoples sense of responsibility” ibid.
Audu Bako’s style of administration can best be described as purely military, everything that passes through him is treated with military dispatch. He has also been described as dynamic and visionary. He always plans to achieve and he did achieve. And as Gowon gave governors freehand, he did the same to his lieutenants, he believed that responsibility goes with necessary authority before performance is expected from them. So he gave them freehand to initiate and carry out. As a man who cherishes hardwork and always goes for quality, his executives were all he needed as most of them had come from former Native Authority in Kaduna with their zeal and experience, others were politicians whose dream of building a greater Kano has not been realised, so the opportunity that came to them was to utilize and prove their worth, and they surely did as every commissioner or permanent secretary had something to say for himself at the end of the seven years they spent building Kano.
Audu Bako’s government has four reasons that saw it to whatever success it had achieved, the first being the dynamism of the governor himself, their is also the availability of money as oil has just taken over from groundnuts and cotton as revenue earner for Nigeria. Then comes the effective civil service that left Kaduna for Kano with all its dedication, effectiveness, experience and high number, and lastly the long tenure of the administration.
He was the first military governor to appoint commissioners among his peers for, three months after becoming governor, he announced his commissioners. The Federal Government directive that he should hold on, did not make him reverse his decision, as he made the commissioners chairmen of committees set up to make recommendations to the government on how ministries should start up and function. State creation was formally announced on 1st April 1968, and the commissioners then assumed headship of ministries on a political capacity while permanent secretaries that were sent by the Interim Administration Council in Kaduna, the body responsible for administering new states, became administrative heads and accounting officers. Six ministries were approved by the IAC, Kano state had; Agriculture, Forestry and community development; Justice; Education; Finance, industry and small scales; Works and survey. All six ministries were to be administered by a permanent secretary each while a seventh permanent secretary was made secretary to the military government.
Although the governor had already earmarked more than seven people for the post of commissioners, the excess were still utilized, for they were given portfolios. A 2nd commissioner was appointed for Finance Ministry while Information, Home affairs, and Local government all in the military governors office all got a commissioner each; but Justice, Works and survey, Education, Agriculture and Health all remained with a commissioner each.
When the administration of the state began to unfold, the military governor considered the need to decentralise the government of the state so that the common man in the rural areas will feel its impact more, and even contribute meaningfully to its development. An administrative reform was embarked upon. Eight towns were selected as administrative area offices headed by a district officer. This idea which was the first in Nigeria was informed by a deep concern for the rural dweller who does not have access to good roads, transport, and money and such a person wishes to make a report to the state government, he may spend days without seeing the appropriate official. In order to make it easy for him, he can now see his district officer who makes a report and sends to the state headquarters, feedback also comes through him to his administrative area. The composition of the areas were like this:
Kano north central – which includes – Babura, Garki, Ringim, Gabasawa, Gezawa, Minjibir, Dambatta.
Kazaure – Kazaure, Roni, Yankwashi, Amaryawa.
Gumel – Sule tankarkar, Maigatari, Danzomo, Gagarawa, Gumel.
Hadejia – Birniwa, Malam madori, Guri, Kirikasamma, Auyo, Bulangu, Kafin hausa, Hadejia.
Kano west – Gwarzo, Tofa, Bichi, Karaye.
Kano south east – Gaya, Jahun, Dutse, Birnin kudu, Sumaila, Gwaram.
Kano south west – Dawakin kudu, Kura, Kiru, Rano, Wudil, Tudun wada.
Kano metropolitan – Ungogo, Kumbotso, Kano, Waje.
Following the reforms and in order to instil among the administrative areas the spirit of competition, a 15 per cent bonus was given to each from the total tax collected from such area in addition to the state subvention given them. The rebate was also meant to help in bringing about accelerated development in the areas. This was the idea that gave birth to the creation of local governments by succeeding governments.
The Interim Administration Council, approved six ministries to all the states, but as explained earlier, the structure of the ministries gave priority to the position of permanent secretary, who is the administrative head and accounting officer over and above the commissioner who is only a political appointee with mostly a ceremonial status. That was probably why only six permanent secretaries shared seven commissioners. The ministry of Finance, economic planning, trade and industry, had Mohammed Sani Dambatta as the first permanent secretary, Two commissioners each for, economic planning, trade and industry; and finance, Alhaji Aminu Dantata and Alhaji Muhammad Gauyama respectively worked with him.
The five remaining ministries had the remaining officers; Agriculture permanent secretary was Alhaji Mohammed Isma while Alhaji Inuwa Dutse was the commissioner. In the Justice ministry, Alhaji Zakari Mohammed was the Attorney General. In the ministry of Health, Dr. Abubakar Imam was the permanent secretary while Alhaji Sani Gezawa was the commissioner. Ministry of Works and survey had Alhaji Balarabe Ismail as permanent secretary, while Alhaji Muhammad Ayyuba was the commissioner. Lastly, Education had Alhaji Magaji Dambatta as permanent secretary with Alhaji Muhtari Adnan as commissioner. These were the first set of political appointees for Kano state in the six ministries, however, there were others who served without the ambit of ministries like the commissioners for Home Affairs and information. Alhaji Umaru Gumel and Tanko Yakasai respectively and the commissioner for Local governments Alhaji Yusuf Maitama Sule. They all served under the military governors office and were served by an extra permanent secretary responsible for the cabinet secretariat, Alhaji Alfa Wali. The last permanent secretary was the secretary to the state government, Alhaji Abdurrahman Howeidy.
To strengthen the cabinet of the year old Kano state, some changes took effect from June 1969, the permanent secretaries for; Works, Education, Agriculture, Finance and Health were all dropped. The permanent secretary for Works however, was re-appointed Chief Executive of the newly created Metropolitan Planning and Development Board.
Also coming at the same time was the creation of two new ministries out of the former ministry of Finance, economic planning, trade and industry. They are; Establishment and service matters, and economic development trade and industry. The ministries were given to Alhaji Baba Danbaffa and Alhaji Aminu Dantata respectively. Both had separate permanent secretaries. Another ministry was created out of three others, Co-operatives, Forestry and community development. The units were from Trade, Agriculture, and Education respectively. Alhaji Yusuf Maitama Sule was made commissioner, his former office was scrapped. New permanent secretaries were also appointed, they include; Aliyu Daneji for Finance, Salihi Ilyasu for Works, Nuhu usman for Justice, W. A. Stark for Health, Muhtari Dan Amu for Education and Musa Gumel for Agriculture. Minor changes followed in 1970. The commissioners for Finance and Home Affairs swapped positions for better performance. In 1971, the commissioner for information, Alhaji Tanko Yakasai also swapped positions with Alhaji Yusuf Maitama Sule of forestry cooperatives and community development.
1970 it was when two permanent secretaries on official assignment lost their lives in an air crash, they are Alhaji Nuhu Usman and Alhaji Muhtari Dan Amu. They were later replaced by Alhaji Sani Aikawa and Alhaji Hussaini Adamu respectively. The state also lost the commissioner for Finance, Alhaji Umaru Gumel in the same year. Alhaji Tanko Yakasai held the ministry on acting capacity while he still retained his forestry portfolio until 1972, when he was finally moved to the Finance ministry. Also in 1971, routine postings of permanent secretaries took place. Alhaji Isa Gambo Dutse on return from a course at Oxford took over the ministry of economic planning, trade and industry. Alhaji Muhammad Ibrahim was posted to health for six months and was returned to Home Affairs where he stayed up to 1975, Alhaji Musa Gumel took over from him in the health ministry. Alhaji Bilyaminu usman and Alhaji a Ado Madaka were appointed commissioners in 1972 and were posted to cooperatives, forestry and community development and the newly created ministry for economoic planning. The ministry for Trade and Industry had Alhaji Sani Gezawa as commissioner, splitting of the ministry came after the resignation of alhahi Aminu Dantata. However a few months later, the ministry of cooperatives was disbanded and the three departments were returned to their former ministries, and the commissioner, Bilyaminu Usman was moved to Education as Muhtari Adnan had resigned along with Aminu Dantata. Alhaji Muhammad Gauyama was moved to Establishments ministry as Baba Dan Baffa had also resigned.
AUDU BAKO’S COMMISSIONERS
- Muhammad Ayyuba Works and survey 1968-75
- Inuwa Dutse Agriculture 1968-75
- Umaru Gumel Finance, H/Affairs 1970-72,68-70
- Tanko Yakasai Information, coops, finance 68-71,71-72,72-75.
- Maitama Sule L/govt, coops, Inform 68-69,69-71,71-75
- Muhammadu Gauyama finance, h/affairs, estabs 68-70,70-73,73-75
- Aminu Dantata eco. plg, trade and industry -68-73
- Zakari Mohammed attorney general 1968 – 75
- Muhtari Adnan Education 1968 -73
- Baba dan Baffa establishments 1968-73
- Sani Gezawa Health, h/affairs, ag.eco plg. 68-73,73-75,73-75.
- Bilyaminu Usman coops, education 1972-73,73-75.
- Ado Madaka eco plg.,home affairs 1972-74,75.
Alhaji Hassan Lemu 1967-68
SECRETARIES TO THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT
Alhaji Abdurrahman Howeidy 1968-75
Alhaji Alfa Wali 1975.
- Muhammed Isma agric 1968-69
- Balarabe Ismail works 1968-69
- Magaji Dambatta educ 1968-69
- Sani Dambatta finance 1968-69
- Abubakar Imam Health 1968-69
- Alfa Wali cabinet sec 1968-75
- Nuhu Usman Justice 1969-71
- Mohammad Ibrahim h/affairs 1969-75
- Aliyu Daneji finance 1969-71
- Salihi Ilyasu works 1969-72
- Suleiman Baffa agric, estabs, l/govt 69-75
- Musa Gumel agric, educ 1969-75
- M. T. Waziri works 1972-75
- Hussaini Adamu educ 1970-76
- Zakari Bello agric,estabs,health
- Abdul Kazaure agric 1973-75
- M.T.Umar agric
- Isa Gambo Dutse trade 1971-75
- Sadauki Kura eco plg. 1973-75
- Saidu Gwarzo CAS 1974-75
- Tukur Gwarzo special duties 1971-75
- Tsoho Tofa trade
- Isa Hashim eco plg.
- Sani Aikawa sol.gen 1971-75
- Muhtari dan Amu educ 1969-71
- Sule Minjibir estabs, health
- St. E. D. Nelson
- Mr .Woodroofe
- R. O. Mant
- B.Erty leal estabs
- V. S. Kulatunga works, WRECA
- W. A. Stark.
HEADS OF PARASTATALS
– Rural Electrification Board Alhaji Jafaru Aliyu GM
– Kano state investments ltd. Joseph Farah GM
– Kano state transport corporation Alhaji Sabo Sambo GM
– Kano oil mills Hans Willi MD
– Metropolitan planning and devt board Balarabe Ismail CEO
– Kano state television service MD
– WRECA Vigit Kulatunga GM
Public service commission
– Alhaji Shuaibu Kazaure 1968-71 chairman
– Alhaji A.R.Waziri 1971-75 chairman
– Alhaji Saidu Gwarzo secretary
Chiefs of protocol
– Ali Ahmed
– Ismaila Yaro Dandago
Principal private secretaries
– Ibrahim Bello
– Bashari Gumel
Aide de corps
– Abdullahi Jika
– Mr. Jeb
– Ahmed Kaoje
– Abba Dutse
– Babagana Adamu
– Umaru Abdulwahhab.
AUDU BAKO AND AGRICULTURE
It can be said that Audu Bako became interested in agriculture in his tender age, he was in his early twenties when he owned the Kasuwar Magani farm, he was also in his early thirties, when he bought the Buruku farm, he later owned the Tiga and Mariri farms as governor. One of his close friend said Audu and himself used to visit farms belonging to other people when he was newly appointed as he had not bought a farm then. Audu Bako loved farming probably more than anything in his life. I wish to introduce part of a speech he delivered at the festival of agriculture, forestry and veterinary science at the university of Ibadan on the 7th of may 1970.
“… In the economy of every nation, agriculture takes a foremost place, nothing develops unless people can eat and eat well, there is nothing more important than the development of a balanced agriculture which can provide all people… with a balanced diet. The foundation of good health is good food and it is only by the provision of an abundant supply of the correct foods that mankind can survive and develop.”
Governor Bako has in the seven years of his reign changed Kano from importer of food to the food basket of the nation. He succeeded in changing the dry state into a fertile land, rich in various types of crops grown in both the wet and dry seasons. He initiated an integrated agricultural scheme, a zoological garden, and a dairy, all fully functional by the time he left government. The development of the Kano river project has saved Kano’s large rural populace from migration to urban areas, and it has made farmers greater at home. Agriculture has remained one area in which Audu will never be forgotten in the history of Kano, and the nation at large.
THE INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL SCHEME
A quadri-partite livestock scheme was introduced to ensure the development of high level protein base for the people through high quality meat and milk intake. The livestock investigation and breeding centers, which are a major component of the scheme, were set up by the Northern Nigeria government to investigate production potentials of local breeds and maximise on their productivity by genetic selection and cross breeding with improved genetic stock. The Gumel and Birnin kudu LIBC’s were opened before the creation of Kano state. The scheme consists of Ranches, fattening centers, an abbatoir, and a cold store. The ranch is a vast land where cows are developed from youth to adulthood, with Bunkure being the largest at 9000 acres. Others exist at Sumaila and Bagauda. The Bunkure ranch houses 10,000 heads of cattle, all belonging to the state government. The fattening center as the name implies takes care of cows that are old enough to be slaughtered, these are transferred out of the ranches to the centers for proper feeding techniques, the fattening centers at Gaya kadawa Tiga, Gumel and Birnin kudu then send the cows to the abbatoir were they are slaughtered and processed into packages, meat for local consumption is distributed whilemeat for sale to other parts of Nigeria were taken to the cold store where they are loaded on wagons and transported by rail to the market areas. The scheme was to obviate the necessity for live transportation of animals, which was expensive. The abbatoir was the only part of the scheme not completed at the time of the 1975 coup.
KANO ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN
The need for recreation in Kano state informed the establishment of the Kano zoo, a committee headed by Mr. Nelson was set up to among other things find a suitable place for it in Kano. When the committee submitted its report, the emirate garden, 100 acres of land was chosen as Kano zoo site in 1970. Even before completion of constructions, some animals were brought and kept at Mr Nelsons house, [gidan dan hausa]. By completion time, Alhaji Inuwa Dutse, the commissioner, travelled to Australia to bring some animals, including Kangaroos that were making their début trip to Africa. A little later, the governor travelled to east Africa and brought two plane loads of assorted animals, with all these, the zoo was opened with 500 fauna. When the then emir of Hadejia donated lions to the zoo, Audu’s wife Ladi reared them to adulthood at the government house. The Kano zoo also has an Inn to cater for visitors.
THE KANO URBAN DAIRY
The dairy was supplied with milk from the kadawa LIBC. It was equipped with a complete laboratory. Milk was treated and pasteurised, it was then passed to the cold room. The company produces yoghurt in three flavours; chocolate, orange, and strawberry, fresh milk, ice cream and butter. 75,000 was spent on the project. It handles more than 400 gallons of milk per day.
To facilitate flow of milk to the dairy, cow owners were invited to bring milk and in return, feed for their animals are sold to them at a subsidized rate. The farm center, which formerly included the whole city center, was irrigated from the dam located near the present Hassan Ibrahim Gwarzo secondary school for boys through a pipeline, to produce fodder for cattle.
FALGORE GAMES RESERVE
The FALGORE games reserve, erstwhile just a forest reserve was first marked by the Metropolitan Kano. The report suggested the opening up of the forest by means of an access road to turn it into a government reserve. As it was wont to do, the state government through its agriculture ministry set out to perform this task. At that time, only Yankari games reserve exist in northern Nigeria and FALGORE was linked to it. There were plenty heads of wild animals, that have found the reserve conducive for habitation.
The Tiga river source is at the forest. In order then to boost tourism and earn for the state some revenue, staff of the Yankari games reserve were invited to work along with forestry officials in the state, they were given two weeks to count the animal heads in the forest. With their task completed, the ministry officials started work on the 1063km2 reserve. 23,000 was given to the inhabitants of the FALGORE village as compensation, they were moved 14 miles away to a new place, though an extension of the reserve, Kafin Audu Bako. The new reserve formerly called Kogin Kano was to be called Falgore. A new road [the Tudun wada road] was constructed, and Hotel and recreational facilities were provided. The reserve later served to study wildlife population in other forest reserves.
THE KANO ABBATOIR
Kano abbatoir is the largest of its kind in Africa, it was to serve as part of the integrated agricultural scheme, it was formerly sited at the present school of legal studies on BUK road. The project idea was conceived in 1974 and contract was awarded for 6.2 million Naira, work had commenced with the construction of the office buildings and ditches, when another governor moved it to its present site on panshekara road. The construction was to include an office complex, quarantine, and slaughter house which in itself include; slaughter, hide and skin removal and inspection, to ensure export quality skin, there are sections also that treat intestines and internal organ removal and blood bank. The cold room, another section is cooled by two powerful compressors which are in turn powered by electricity with two generators standing by in case of failure. The company was to be supplied with cattle from the Bagauda LIBC, and it will in turn send frozen and packaged meat in cold trucks to the ALDA near gidan Murtala for loading on wagons for onward transportation to other parts of the country. At that time, government wanted to ensure that cows other than those for ceremonial, breeding and research, are not transported alive.
The company has the capacity to handle the slaughter, processing and storage of 800 heads of cattle, and 1000 goats/sheep daily with a cold storage of over 500 tonnes. The abbatoir though has not had the opportunity exercise this capacity since its commencement of operation in 1988.
Cattle were imported from at least four countries to supplement and cross breed with local breed; drought master from Australia, Friesian from the UK, Sudanese that have never left Sudan before, and south Devon of Netherlands. Friesian bulls were used at the hotoro artificial insemination center, to inseminate local breed, the center was established in conjunction with the ABU institute of agriculture.
Anglo-nubian goats and Baluchi sheep were also introduced and sent to Kiru and Rano for breeding. Even horses were not left behind, as many were introduced into the state from abroad.
Local fulani cows were also well taken care of. Diseased cows that pass through Kano on stock routes, on their way to southern Nigeria, were inoculated at various points. Grazing reserves were first set up in 1968, there were about 50 cattle dams then constructed by the state government for cows. These dams serve dual purposes, they serve as drinking places for the cows and grazing reserves during the rainy season. Gamba is planted near them so that cows can eat them during the dry season. 3976 hectares was developed. 23 lister engines were purchased for areas without dams, bailing machines were purchased to support the fodder conservation techniques near Tomas river project. To check the roaming of herds of cattle 400ha was fenced. Kano river project livestock development involved the utilisation of waste land on the river project to support 35,000 heads of cattle and 200,000 sheep/goats. Veterinary clinics in Kano were up to 32 by 1975.
Poultry centers were also established at gwale, Kazaure, Dambatta, Gumel and Hadejia, to develop various breeds of poultry. They produce 10,000 day old chicks. The farm came complete with a hatchery which is still in use. The center improved egg rise and output and improved local breed by cross breeding. On fisheries, Bagauda is one of the fish producing areas in the state, and one of the biggest in Northern Nigeria. Most of the dams in Kano serve as fisheries, and a large turn over is realised yearly from them. Since 1970, various varieties of fish were introduced like the common carp, bogrus, heterosis, and lates.
Shelterbelts were introduced in extreme parts of the state to check desert encroachment, and serve as woodlot to the state. Fruit trees were also introduced through a world bank project.
A cotton ginnery was commissioned to break the monopoly of the white man. Kano was a major producer of cotton and it had a large catchment area, but all cotton had to be exported without ginning, denying the state the use of cotton seed, which is itself a raw material for cotton seed oil and animal feed. Fertilizer was ordered direct from manufacturers and sold direct to farmers, so chances of hoarding and the issues of middlemen were almost completely alien. Between 1969-70, fertilizer was distributed free to farmers.
An agricultural show was introduced at district level, and to round it all up, all districts competed at the Bagauda agric show venue, General Gowon came during one of the state shows. The event was meant to publicize Kano as one of the largest and oldest trading centers of west Africa, and an agricultural state.
The location of the venue about 50 km from Kano ,at Bagauda. It is close to kadawa farm and irrigation center, pilot fish farms, and the Bagauda holiday resort. The place covers an area of 180,000sq ft and cost the state government N220,000. A trade fair complex to be constructed as a second phase of the show was to cover one million sq ft in the 3rd national development plan.
Schools for training in agriculture were opened in Kano state. College of agriculture was moved from Bagauda to become the school of agriculture Tomas in order to train livestock assistants and superintendents. Three farm training centers were opened at Dambatta, Gumel and Bagauda. Students spend a year in school and a year in the field. Graduates can proceed to Tomas for further education. Six farm institutes were opened by 1974 at panda, Danzomo, sada, Gwarzo, Malam madori and Rano to train pupils with farming background. The provision of loans to farmers, institution of an annual lecture to discuss problems and prospects of agriculture, even the techniques of water conservation were highly carried out in higher rainfall intensity areas, strategic grains reserves were made an annual event, they serve as stand by provision in cases of emergencies as happened during the ill fated west Africa drought of 1972, the reserves also serve as market price stabilisers. In recognition of Audu Bako’s effort in agriculture and minimising the effects of the drought on the people of Kano state, due to the provision of water supply and irrigation, he was awarded a gold medal by a Lebanese humanitarian organisation. The award was only given to four people throughout the world, such people must have exemplary attainments in the provision of welfare facilities to their people.
WATER SUPPLY AND IRRIGATION
Sources of water supply for Kano metropolis, were by Nigeria’s independence, the rivers challawa and Kano, with twenty submersible electric pumps. Nine in river Kano and eleven in river challawa. These pumps jointly deliver at the rate of just 200,000 gallons a day. Water was treated at challawa and then delivered by 14inch and 15 inch diameter mains to the four million gallon capacity tank at goron Dutse, eight miles away and 250 ft higher than the water works. At that time an average seven gallons a day was estimated for individual consumption, and two million gallons a day for metropolitan Kano. Other than challawa, rural Kano was not supplied with piped water. Improvements to water works and an additional 24 inch diameter mains, from the works to the reservoir was completed in 1965. The economic limit of the sources at that time was put at 3.25mgd. [million gallons per day].
House holds without piped water, buy from dealers who are on contract to the Native Authority, there were 36 selling stations in the city since house connections are very few. Only 3206 houses were connected in the whole city. So most people supplement potable water with well water, though some may be contaminated as a result of proximity with latrines. The creation of states brought a new dimension in the administration of water provision services which was earlier done by the ministry of works for Northern Nigeria. The new state ministry of works and survey was then charged with the task, the first of which was to curtail the acute water shortage in the metropolis. Taps run for only a few hours a day especially during the dry season. The ministry increased the number of pumps at the water works and the supply increased to 5mgd. A survey was then conducted on the resources of the Kano river and the findings confirmed that water collected at Wudil over a 24 hour period can supply Kano with potable water for 30 years. So the construction of a dam became apparent. The Bagauda idea was initiated by Engr. Salihi Ilyasu, then a chief engineer with the ministry of works. Construction on the dam site began in 1969 and was completed in less than a year at the cost of about half a million pounds. At completion, the dam solved the water shortage in Kano town, with a supply of 40mgd. Water from the dam goes to the challawa water works where it is treated to internationally accepted world health standards, to the goron Dutse reservoir. Another one million gallon tank was also commissioned at magwan to distribute water to the western part of Kano, the tank was constructed 100 ft below goron Dutse so water gravitates to it through pipe. The dam was also channelled to irrigate kadawa pilot farm and serves as a fish farm and livestock center. [LIBC]
Bagauda dam provided Kano with potable water for four years until 1974 when Tiga dam was commissioned. Bagauda was meant to be an interim measure to curb water shortage before completion of Tiga, Bagauda now serves riparian, tourist, and irrigation purposes.
Efforts of the state government in dam construction neither began nor ended with the Bagauda. Early in 1969, governor Bako on a tour of schools in Birnin kudu noticed that schools close three months early during the rainy season because of shortage of water. He returned with the idea of a dam, he discussed the idea with his professionals and the dam was constructed before the end of the dry season. It was followed by a water works soon afterwards, solving the water shortage of the area. After Bagauda, dams were constructed mainly with the twin aim of irrigating farmlands and providing potable water. Kusalla dam was constructed to provide water to Karaye, Gwarzo, Getso and surrounding villages, a tank was also provided at Getso, the dam also serves as a fishery. Construction commenced in 1970 and was completed a year later. Tomas dam brought a new dimension in dam construction in the state. During the construction of Kano-Daura road by the Federal government, the state government sought for the construction of the dam on the crossing river Tomas instead of a bridge, this was accepted. Tomas was the first dam built this way, it has capacity to irrigate 8000 acres of farmland, sprinklers were also applied in deeper areas for the irrigation. Many other dams were later constructed this way especially along Kano -Gwarzo road. Challawa gorge dam was built on the challawa river 90 km away from the city, it has an active storage capacity of 904mcm and a length of 7.804km. The multi purpose reservoir serve the water needs of downstream areas of Kano, Jigawa, Yobe and Borno states for:
- Irrigation of about 26,000ha of Hadejia valley project, 40,000ha of Kano river project phase II and other schemes downstream for the production of rice, wheat, sugarcane, vegetables etc.
- Supplementing the water supply to Kano metropolis and surrounding rural communities.
- Mandatory minimum flow release into the river for downstream requirements in Jigawa, Yobe and Borno.
- Flood control.
- Development of fisheries.
- Expected increase in production to reach 212,000 metric tonnes of assorted grains.
Survey work for the dam was done by an American firm in 1974 at the cost of 400,000, land clearing commenced by direct labour while construction began later in 1976. Other dam constructions in the period under review include jakara and gari, they both served as irrigation dams. Jakara irrigates 6000 acres of farmland while gari irrigates 20,000 acres. A 25 km access road was also constructed for the dam. Both dams were also to provide water supply but carelessness on the part of later governments allowed industrial effluent to toxicate the jakara. Gari provide Kazaure with potable water.
Two dams were constructed at Kazaure, one named after the late emir, Alhaji Ibrahim Adamu, while the other was named after the commissioner for works, Alhaji Ayyuba, both dams provide water for irrigation for Kazaure town. Ayyuba dam has an active storage capacity of 54.4m3 million, while Adamu dam has a capacity of 5.3m3 million.
Construction work on ruwan kanya dam commenced in 1975, but was completed in 1976, with an acp of 56.6m3 million, it serves irrigation and riparian purposes. The last dam to be built by the Audu Bako government was the Kafin ciri, it was to supply Garko, Kafin ciri, and Sumaila with potable water, it is for irrigation and fisheries. Bulk of the work on the dam was done by later governments. Tiga dam, first proposed in the O’sullivan report to the emir of Kano in 1954, metropolitan Kano in 1963 and the bureau of reclamation in 1968 was the first dual purpose dam and still the biggest, capable of irrigating 22,000ha as the nucleus of the Kano River Project. The bureau of reclamation which commenced work as directed by northern Nigerian government to locate potential dam sites and irrigable areas on the Chad basin, was to complete its report after the coup of 1966. [The lake Chad resource study] when the report was brought to Nigeria, it was submitted to the governor because most of the dam sites fall within the new Kano state. The state ministry of agriculture and that of works, were immediately mandated to review the report. This done, the foundation was laid to construct recommended dams in the state, before this time, Audu had been confronted with a lot of problems of rural -urban migration, potable drinking water, erratic rainfall and lack of agricultural land. The report was named Kano River Project and was to irrigate 120,000ha of farmland for dry season farming.
The first phase covers Bebeji, Bunkure, Rano, kadawa and Kura. The second phase covers Wudil, Gaya and Dawakin kudu, while the third phase covers the Hadejia valley project. All these areas were to be supplied by canal from Tiga. Prior to the tiga idea, only two irrigation projects existing the state, these were the Jakarade and Hadejia with a total coverage area of 1300acres, and irrigated by pumping residual flow in the river. The governor had in mind the maximum utilisation of canals and streams, deep wells and provision of pumps, so irrigation projects of these nature carried along with the proposal for the tiga for the second national development plan, were all approved with the exception of tiga dam construction on the grounds that Kano had no executive capacity to make such a dam. So Audu looked inwards on return, his commissioner for agriculture and others agreed to forego some of their projects and made money available for the dam, while the commissioner civil service commission gave Salihi Ilyasu, the permanent secretary, freehand to employ any relevant personnel for the project. But at completion, only half of the estimated amount was spent. About eight villages that lie within 30 miles radius of the project were relocated and compensated, 1000 houses were billed for construction at the site.
Construction commenced simultaneously on the dam, channelisation and labour quarters. A pilot farm which was to be sited at danhassan and watered by a borehole, was moved to kadawa with the availability five miles away of Bagauda dam. The farm was set up to establish different parameters relating to irrigation design, agronomy, construction and operational management of the tiga project. A separate pipe was provided at the dam for the 500 acre pilot farm which also included staff quarters and a fishery, to add color to the tiga dam, a sail boat harbour was built.
At the completion of the dam, the Federal government sent an inspection team to Kano which became highly impressed. The then head of state, general Gowon, commissioned it in 1974 and promised that the federal government will fund the remaining phases of the project, and highlighted the creation of a river basin development authority in the country which will take over the Kano river project. This was not well received by the Kano state government, and it sent a message to the federal government to this effect, since the dam was constructed by state funds. When the authority was created, it took over the river project and Kano has not been compensated.
The eastern divide of the hydrogeological boundary of Kano state which cover the present Jigawa is mostly an arid region. Surface water is scarce, that was why only Kazaure and Birnin kudu benefitted from dams, but despite this, the state government tried very hard to ensure equitable distribution of water facilities in the state. The Hadejia and Jakarade earlier mentioned, were improved by the state government. In 1974 a contract was awarded for the investigation of underground water resources in the region as the effects of the west Africa drought became evidently deadly. The finding was to cover all the areas where rainfall is inadequate. Tiga dam was also to supply the Hadejia valley and so is the challawa gorge dam. A research study and investigation was co-sponsored by the Canadian government on the resources of the Hadejia valley. The report was submitted after Audu Bako had left government.
Kano River Project
Kano river project is unique in design, the entire water distribution network operates on gravity, tiga dam distributes to the project through 18 km long main canals, which splits into eastern and western branches, these are then further broken into lateral canals, distributory canals field canals and finally to farms. Each of the above mentioned structures are designed to carry a designated discharge, sufficient to irrigate the area it commands, the right storge reservoirs which were constructed in different locations throughout the project area is another unique feature of the project. The reservoirs ere built to receive and store the flow in the main and branch canals during the night, this is necessary since the entire project has to carry out irrigation at the same time. during the day a large quantity of water has to be stored in different locations of the project at night, when no irrigation is taking place. Also designed and built is an elaborate drainage system which drain the project area of excess irrigation flow and rainy season water.
Tiga enable two cropping each year, during the rainy season, rice is planted in most farms while in the dry season, wheat, maize and vegetables were planted, any traveller on the Kano-Kaduna expressway will be flanked by the project for 30 km, [from chiromawa to karfi] many villages have benefitted from the dam.
At the construction of the first dam, the Birnin kudu, Kano has only five earth moving plants and equipment, even though this was a small dam, labour intensive method had to be employed to supplement the efforts of the few machines available. It was significant to note that not a single Kano state indigen could operate the plants, most of the operators deployed with the machines from Kaduna, were from Kaduna Plateau states. The successes recorded at the Birnin kudu inspired the governor to direct the ministry to continue with construction through direct labour as opposed to contract methods. More machines and equipment were purchased for the construction of the Bagauda in 1969 and cheap labour was again a highlight of the dam, while at Zaria dam, the Kaduna state government was spending 36/6d per square foot, only 3/6d was spent for the same area at Bagauda. In order to ensure back-up services for the earth moving equipment, governor Bako persuaded the tractor and equipment unit of the UAC to open a branch in Kano before he bought machines from them. Later Terex company also opened a branch in Kano for that purpose.
Maintenance of earth dams, which are built to last 100 years is very essential, especially the provision of drains, the slopes and spillway. Foundation outlet works and crest of an earth dam must be constantly observed for any abnormal signs that may eventually lead to total collapse. Perhaps as a result of inattention in 1977, the Birnin kudu became the first dam to collapse, it happened as a result of overtopping due to inadequate spillway. Bagauda’s first scare happened in 1985 when a major crack appeared on the dam, but was promptly curtailed, the 1988 disaster caused destruction of lives, roads, farmlands, property and cost the Federal government 27 million to repair, all due to inattention as the major crack appeared two days before the collapse.
The economic importance of dams in Kano state cannot be over emphasized due to the following reasons:
- Provision of adequate water supply for the people of the state.
- Dams made it possible for Kano to grow enough food for its teeming population through all season farming.
- It has placed the state in the forefront in the production of wheat, thereby making the state the wheat basket of the nation.
- Provision of gainful employment for the rural populace during the long dry season, thereby curbing rural-urban migration.
- It has helped the state in its fight against desertification by providing water for the provision of forest reserves.
- All dams were built by direct labour, saving the state millions of Naira.
- Provision of recreational facilities and encouraging tourism especially with the provision of dala and goron Dutse, two boats at tiga dam.
- Riparian agriculture is enhanced, as fish, which could not be bred in the dry season now has a chance with the availability of dams.
Kano state government on creation in 1967 was faced with the problem of lack of adequate motorable roads, particularly during the rainy season. The first task was then to provide all season roads across the state, which would open up the rural areas for overall development. At that time 450 miles of local authority roads were taken over by the state and renovated.
The state also provided tarred and laterite [feeder] roads linking various communities, towns and villages with the resulting enhancement of the socio economic position of the state. However in order to reduce cost and provide employment opportunities and the development of technical skills and ethics among its young and upcoming professionals, the state embarked on road construction through direct labour. Three bodies were shouldered with the responsibility of road construction in the state; the ministry of works, metropolitan planning and development board [UDB], and WRECA. WRECA mostly concentrated on rural roads, while UDB concentrated on urban roads, the ministry construct roads in both the rural and urban areas.
Let us have a glance at some rural roads constructed in Kano state between 1968-74.
- Mallam madori-Nguru
- Tiga-Rurum-Rano-Garko-Kwanar Garko
- Rano-Kibiya-Sumaila-Kwanar Sumaila
- Yar kawo-Nataala
- Gumel-Sule tankarkar-Babura
- Gumel-Dan zomo-Gujungu-Jahun-Kiyawa
- Dakaiyawa-Kafin hausa
- Gaya-Jahun-Kafin hausa
- Kwanar Huguma-Dutse-Kiyawa
- Kano-madobi-Kafin maiyaki
- Kano- Bichi- Tsanyawa
- Kafin maiyaki to Tudun wada border
- Kazaure-wawan rafi
Some of the roads were constructed for special reasons, during the construction of tiga dam, at least four roads were constructed to provide access to the dam site or to detour traffic from the site. Tiga-Rahama, Wak-tiga-gajale and tiga Rurum were constructed to provide access while Tudun wada road was constructed to direct traffic from Rano-Tudun wada because of the construction, and the opening of the falgore games reserve. The road also reduced the distance between Kano and Jos by about 125km. Easy access to other states became another important reason for the construction of roads. The position of Kano as a commercial nerve center in sub Saharan Africa cannot be over emphasized. So roads were constructed to ensure easy flow of goods and services to and from Kano.
The Kwanar Huguma-Dutse-Kiyawa road was constructed to provide easy access to Bauchi state through Azare, while Kano-Gwarzo-dayi was for access to katsina and Sokoto states. Kano-Bichi-Tsanyawa, was for access to katsina state, and Kunya-Babura a world bank assisted project was for access to Niger republic.
A remarkable achievement was made in the construction of metropolitan roads, especially the construction of dual carriageways with pavements and street lights, the city, gyadi gyadi, tarauni, nassarawa, Sabon gari, gwagwarwa, and tudun wada were fully served with tarred roads for easy communication, some existing roads were also dualised. Some of this roads include:
- Murtala Mohammed way, from Ahmadu Bello way to triumph junction
- BUK road, kofar nassarawa to BUK.
- Aminu Kano way
- Triumph round about-kofar mazugal-kofar ruwa-katsina road junction
- Ibrahim taiwo-kofar mata-kofar kwaru-around the palace-kofar kudu-kofar nassarawa-kasuwar rimi.
- Ibrahim taiwo to gidan murtala
- Sabo bakin zuwo road [silver jubillee round about]-audu bako way junction.
- Audu bako way
- Lagos street-airport road bridge
- Mandawari-kofar kabuga, [started]
- Ahmadu Bello way
- IDH-triumph link
- Suleiman crescent [started]
The state ministry of works in 1972 produced a road map of kano state to facilitate development, the map showed where each federal, state and local road was to be constructed for Kano state, the effort was the first in Nigeria.
Housing – land development
Efforts of the state government in planning, started with the setting up of the Kano metropolitan planning and development board, as suggested by Trevallion’s report on metropolitan Kano. The report, financed by the government of northern Nigeria to the tune of 6000 was to:
- prepare a long term development plan for Kano.
- carry out development in accordance with the plan and be responsible for the necessary financial implications.
The name of the board was later changed to urban development board UDB,and more responsibilities were added to its schedule:
- plan and control development generally in the metropolitan area of Kano.
- establish new residential, commercial and industrial areas
- improve transportation networks by reconstructing to a higher standard, existing roads construct new ones.
The board started work on the preparation of development plans for Kano. Gyadi-gyadi was one of the first places to be surveyed. The board made it a policy that all plots be serviced before allocation. At no man’s land for example, roads were constructed, drains provided, water pipes were laid, central sewage constructed and sewage dispenser made available.
UDB plans all lands before they are developed, they also advise the governor on which land to be allocated for which purpose. The sharada and challawa industrial estates were planned as suggested by the metropolitan Kano, the challawa for wet industries and sharada for dry industries. Resistance was strong against the board, people were crying blue murder as their plots were refused development, others already constructed were demolished, the criticism was considered a passing phase, that people will come to appreciate the work of the board, but people have stuck to that habit till today.
As a matter of fact, the Kundila housing estate, which was later constructed by the board in 1971 was planned to have its central sewage with a treatment plant, so that wastes can be utilised. The board also implemented the trevallions report’s suggestion that two industrial areas sharada and challawa be serviced for distribution to various industrial concerns that wish to set up in Kano. A sewerage, roads, electricity, water supply, were all provided. The board had also commenced survey of the kurmi market with a view to modernising it, so that its commercial longevity is sustained in the face of modernisation and expansion in and around it.
Due to rising need for quality accommodation especially of civil servants in the state, the state government as early as 1969 started construction of houses to serve this purpose. The government realised also that the quality of life of civil servants and working classes of the people of Kano could be improved through the provision of a well planned, formidable and viable housing project that are easily affordable and accessible, coupled with the provision of adequate infrastructural facilities such as electricity, potable water supply, schools, playgrounds, shopping centers, recreational facilities, sewage and refuse disposal. Construction of junior staff housing schemes began with Bagauda in two series, the first is Bagauda dam housing estate at dakatsalle, while the second is Bagauda lake hotel staff quarters with 138 junior staff quarters, 17 police quarters and two senior staff quarters. Tiga workers village has 500 housing units to house construction workers at tiga dam, houses were also built for the kadawa pilot farm. In Hadejia and Gumel quarters were also constructed to accommodate junior staff.
As for senior staff quarters, 3 bedroom houses were constructed at Suleiman crescent, and WRECA at challawa, some were also made for gari dam. Another important development was the Kundila housing units. 6 houses were made at Kusalla dam. The pilgrim camp with 130 units, was also constructed to serve as transit camp for intending pilgrims. The governor in his policy statement address of 1972, promised teachers their quarters, which were later constructed after the coup of 1975 at gwammaja to complement the UPE program, was the first attempt and probably the only one to offer genuine concern for teachers shelter needs in the state. Other quarters built include 3 and 2 bedroom quarters at tiga and kadawa, other 2 bedroom senior staff quarters were also built at Bagauda. In far away Lagos, blocks of flats were built at Waziri Ibrahim crescent, victoria island, to serve the needs of senior civil servants from Kano state.
Various office buildings were constructed in Kano as these facilities were virtually non existent when the state was created. One of the first developments was the expansion of the government house, an office building was attached to the old Elizabeth house which served as the accommodation for the governor, while guest houses were constructed within the premises, both Africa house and Naser house constructed to accommodate state guests were flamboyantly finished. The metropolitan area headquarters [gidan Murtala] was conceived in 1971 to accommodate the increasing number of staff and provide a befitting head quarters for the metropolitan administrative area. The structure which is 7 storey high with 200 fully air conditioned offices to accommodate 600 officers has an extensive car park at sub basement level. Construction was completed in 1974 at the cost of N3 million. The second phase of the gidan Murtala project, was a conference room, to seat 600, this was however not constructed.
Seven other offices were opened in the rest of the administrative areas, the constructions were necessary in order to administer the areas efficiently. The office blocks accommodate a district officer and representatives of ministries, most of these blocks were completed in 1971 at the cost of 80,000 each. The need to have a central office for all state ministries became quite apparent with the growing number of civil servants. Ministries were scattered all over before the take over of the NNMB along post office road, even with the building, there was need to provide a bigger place with space for expansion, so the idea of the secretariat was conceived.
The building of the secretariat, to be completed in phases was situated between Zaria and Sabo bakin zuwo roads, it contains eleven linked departments with a total floor area of 423,000 sq ft comprising 500 offices, construction commenced on phase 1 early in 1974 and 3,442,620 was earmarked for it. Another building constructed in the same area was the state high court of justice, a 3 storey building with a total floor area of 15,000 sq ft and contains shariah court, four magistrate courts, two high courts with respective administration department, library and prison cells all fully air conditioned. Area courts were also built at Roni, Gagarawa Kiyawa and gwagwarwa.
In 1970 the state government took over the native authority controlled UAC fire service due to increasing responsibility on the authority, almost immediately, the governor mobilised his engineers and soon the fire service headquarters was built, directly opposite gidan murtala. The office was to serve as a nerve center for combating fire outbreaks within Kano. It has a 100ft tall watch tower which doubles as a 20.000 gallon water tank, the office cost the state government 200.000.
By 1968, Kano had taxis plying all roads, 2 parks existed; at fagge near the present round about and another at the present yan kwanoni, where taxis can be chartered, but routine taxi service was non existent. With the creation of the state, there was ample need for more of this taxis. But to worsen matters, all taxis left Kano because of the civil war, so the state was left there. That prompted the government to take immediate action. The Kano Cooperative Federation was contacted with a view to using part of their deposit as loan to the government for the purchase of total of 37 cars for the sum of 69,846.00. The loan was granted and the cars bought. The cars brought the much needed relief in the sector. There were later handed over to the Kano State Transport Corporation.
After the creation of the Corporation, the state government negotiated for the provision of ten buses from Saviem Company of France. The buses which were popularly called golden arrow were bought with promissory notes spread over to end in 1980. The buses were purchased to serve inter and intra city commuter needs. Also under the Corporation’s water section, the two boats bought for 400,000.00 to serve tourist interests at the tiga dam were managed.
Motor parks were also designed back then at Zaria Road and Katsina Road. Each motor park was to have a motel for passengers arriving in the middle of the night, a mini-market and bus and taxi stop outside, where on arrival, passengers can board to any place they which to go.
Kano State Television System (Present NTA Kano)
The present NTA, formerly called KSTS, was initiated by Audu Bako himself. It was part of the terms of reference for the tourism committee chaired by Alhaji Tanko Yakasai. It could be remembered that the committee was set-up along with others before the formal creation of the state. Page Communications Engineers Inc., a subsidiary of Northrop Corporation of Washington was awarded contract for the feasibility studies of the television system, the report was submitted on the 21st of January 1971 to the state government. The report spells out the broadcast service area of the system as Kano, Kazaure, Gumel, Hadejia, Rano, Birnin Kudu, Sumaila, Riruwai and Gwarzo.
While the television center is tom comprise of a studio complex and transmitting facility, and outside broadcast van was to be provided. An architectural plan was also attached to the report. When it reached the Governor, he considered the time it will take to construct the new building, he started searching for a suitable place that could be immediately converted. The present NTA office which was initially the property of Alhaji Sanusi Dantata that was bought by the State Government and converted to serve as Ministry of Information was considered. At this time phase of the Audu Bako Secretariat was ready so information staff were moved down and the NTA project commenced. In the meantime BBC has been contracted to supply all machinery and equipment for the TV house through Crown agents. But since the proposal was drawn during civil war constraints imports of equipments had to wait until after the war. The station started operation and continued unabated until the 1975 coup when Murtala’s Federal Government took it over to serve as Nigerian Television.
Other Information Outlets
These includes daily bulletins from the Ministry of Information, daily public enlightenment campaigns via campaign vans. The Ministry was also equipped with a comprehensive radio studio, a picture gallery, and complete film unit. Infact most of these equipments over 20 years old now are still functioning. Television centres were also constructed in rural areas. The printing press which was taken over by the state government had new buildings constructed and modern equipments bought. These was to strengthen the oldest printing press north of the Niger.
Rural Electrification Board
The Board was set up by Edict No.1 of 1973 of 1st January 1973 and shouldered with the responsibility for establishing and managing electrical undertakings in those parts of the state where NEPA does not maintain electrical undertaking or installation. It was also charged with the responsibility of generating, transmitting, transforming and selling electricity either in bulk or to individual consumers. Audu Bako’s midas touch in this area did not end with the establishment of the Board for by 1974 3 towns namely, Hadejia, Gumel and Kazaure, the seats of the important emirates were electrified, by the time there were commissioned in 1974 work has reached an advanced stage in the electrification of five more towns namely, Gwarzo, Dambata, Birnin Kudu, Mallam Madori, and Rano (though in Rano only the hospital and the administrative headquarters were supplied at that time). By July 1975 99% of the project has been completed.
The plan of the government was to electrified all towns of Kano State within the second and third development plan periods. Decision to electrify 30 more towns was reached on 12 of February 1975 between the Military Governor and a German Engineering Firm. The electrification was to be in two phases. The first phase involving ten towns namely, Ringim, Gaya, Tudun Wada, Karaye, Kura, Sumaila, Wudil, Garko, Gwaram and Dutse. Incidentally, four of the towns fall in the present Jigawa State while the remaining six are in Kano.
The contract was awarded to Nitraco Limited to electrify the ten towns at a cost of 6,967,239 in appreciation the company offered to assist REB in technical cooperation, it also agreed to send and sponsor four students to study electrical engineering in any Nigerian University. The company also promised to sponsor two post graduates students studying various aspects of rural distribution of electricity while studying the company will be responsible for their salaries.
When it became apparent that the state was short of funds, the company agreed to construct on contractor-finance basis. An agreement to that effect was signed on 15th of May, 1975. The project on the 20 towns phase two which was not started before the coup include that of Kaffin Hausa, Roni, Yankwashi, Dawakin Kudu, Kumbotso, Kiri Kasamma, Guri, Birniwa, Auyo, Babura, Bulangu, Jahun, Kiru, Ungogo, Gezawa, and Zakirai. The rest include Minjibir, Amaryawa, Danzomo, and Gagarawa. Apart from all these, a power house was constructed and commissioned by Alhaji Audu Bako in 1974. The power was to be supplied to the Bagauda Lake Hotel and WRECA installations at Tiga.
DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION
The 1952 population census shows that only 0.5% of the total population of Kano province was literate in Roman script with total population of 2.5 million, only 23,405 can read and write Roman script. This has no doubt limited progress in the economic and social life of Kano people, but they can read and write other scripts like Arabic. Distribution of School attendance shows that the school aged attending school is only 5.0% and 2.5% for Kano city and rural areas respectively.
Though the Northern Nigeria Government took a giant stride to rectify this shortfall, little success was really achieved. The largest single item on the fiscal development plan of 1962-68 was education. Impressive increases were planned for primary, post primary, technical and University education.
By 1968, the School age attendance percentage of 5% still remained for Kano This was the facade met by the Audu Bako Government, that necessitated the special note in his maiden address.
“Kano State is backward in the field of modern education, we must do everything to improve quality and quantity. Training institution will be set up, technical education promoted and strict competition will be encouraged”.
As the achievement prone Government was wont to do, it has turned the fate of education around by 1975.
The State in its second development plan of 1970-74 planned to achieve a 15% school attendance for the school aged children of Kano state. The first method employed was the expansion of schools and employment of more teachers. Thirty one primary schools were built in 1970 and to teach them, the Ministry employed about 300 G.II teachers from the south. The effort did not fully succeed as most of the teachers ran back due to apparent discomfiture as the civil war has just ended. A crash program had to be employed to fill vacancies in the classes. The Ministry initiated the posting of primary 5 pupils to teach in lower classes of primary school. And the construction in the same year of 153 primary schools led to an unprecedented increase in enrolments for the year 1973 as 97, 380 pupils were enrolled, 100% of the 1968 figure of 49,532. By 1974, the 15% literacy rate has been achieved.
The KEDC, opened in 1969 from the remains of the Ibo Grammar schools was intended to satisfy the immediate need of teachers. 24 classes were opened the first year as against the 2 classes in the schools. The first set of GII teachers were released in 1974 from the school before the remaining students were distributed to Rumfa, Technical and KTC for secondary school Grammar. Technical and Grade II courses respectively. To give way for the commencement of the college of Advanced studies.
A projected figure of 361 primary schools for Kano for the year 1972 was made by Trevallions “Metropolitan Kano” broken as:
Urban – 115
Rural – 13
A supplementary program was also projected to meet the backlog in educational facilities between 1962-72 by the construction of 68 primary schools for urban Kano and 65 for rural areas, totalling 133. Both projected figure of 128 and 133 have been met by the State Government and beaten by a whopping 68 primary schools.
1962 – 72 projected – 361 primary schools
1972 realised figures – 379 primary schools
The year 1974 was to end the development plan. The 15% literacy rate earlier projected has been achieved. Though unexpected financial problems rocked the whole nation in the wake of Udoji awards, high inflation rate and the like.
The State was only able to open twenty one new primary schools with an enrolment of only 100,109 – an increase of only about 3000 pupils in the whole State in that year. But this slight disappointment gave way to the success that the Ministry was used to, in 1975 the ministry was back again as it enrolled 140,119 and added 58 new schools to accommodate the excess. A total of 370 primary schools were built between 1970-75.
The success of primary education in tightly married to the effort of the state in producing quality teachers most which are grade III earlier but Grade II later. The first school built by the state Government was the KEDC at Gwagwarwa. Which was earlier discussed, Gwarzo, Rano, Danbatta and Gwale then almost immediately followed The last three were taken over from Kano LEA. A lot of emphasis was laid between 1970-74 on the construction of post primary schools, as twenty one new ones were constructed during the period under review with admissions rising from 8114 in 1970 to 14,118 in 1974.Teachers were employed from Britain to improve the staff quality and strength.
In order for the state to make a significant headway in post primary education ,its importance was married to the immediate need of the state, the need to improve the literacy level. That was what all teacher training colleges were trained for. That also explain why teacher education was given prominence. In the 1975-80 development plan, the state planned the improvement of the literacy level from 15% to 25%, at that time TC II holders were highly encouraged to go for NCE, so that post primary school tutors proliferate.
Science and technical-oriented courses were also encouraged at the secondary school level. Vocational Improvement Centre was setup in both the KEDC and the technical college in training prospective candidates for professional expertise in various technical fields. The centres were introduced with assistance from the ford foundation. The National Science doyens, the Dawakin Kudu and Dawakin Tofa were also established during the period under review. Successful candidates after graduation get admission and scholarship into universities at home and abroad, other science students from secondary schools join them in the universities to study medicine, engineering and other professional courses.
This developments made the state indigens aware of the Governments efforts in the improvement of literacy and they decided to donate and build three post primary schools in 1970 the schools built are Gaya, Bagauda, and Lautai under the Kano Educational Trust. Private schools like St. Thomas and St. Lious were assisted by the State Government. The establishment of Ahmadiyya Secondary School was also assisted by the state Government .It was also made a policy that teachers who proceed for NCE retain their salary. This was applauded as many teachers have become breadwinners and cannot garner enough resources for further education especially outside Kano. This led to a dramatic increase in the number of TC II teachers that went for NCE courses. Another policy which confirmed the states commitment at improving educational standards while at the same time bettering the welfare of teachers is the revocation of the law which stipulate two years teaching engagement of NCE before proceeding for degree courses. After NCE, teachers became free to proceed immediately to university for their Degree program, and with their salaries too.
The State encouraged its post primary school teachers to apply to the School of Basic Studies of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. The Higher School Certificate, which produces only a few admissions was relegated as the SBS provides more admissions.
In the area of adult education, the State encourages people to learn to read and write. Evening classes were opened in many areas in the city and in some rural areas. To improve the activities of the evening schools a traditional library was opened at Durumin Iya in the city. Most of the graduates at that time were included in the two-week crash programme that taught the UPE pupils in the State in 1976.
The idea of a state university was hatched by the state Government in 1973 to boost the literacy level more. The KEDC was to form the nucleus of the university with the availability of a large number of classes. The idea started with the setting up of the College for Advanced Studies to pretest secondary school certificate holders before admission into degree courses. The college commenced operation in 1974.
Some institutions were set up to complement the activities of the ministry of education, these are the scholarship board, the state library and the KERD. The Kano Educational Resource Department (formerly In-service Training Centre) was set up in 1970 to serve as inspectorate division for the state Ministry. The scholarship board disbursed funds to all indigens of Kano State that gained admissions into institutes of higher learning whether at home or abroad. It was established in 1968 and by 1974 was able to sponsor 1903 candidates at home and 231 abroad, both cost the State Government N2,564,000.
The state library was also established in 1969 to provide services to the growing number of literates in Kano. It was set up from resources of the regional library Kaduna. 9000 volumes were given to the library by ICSA. Thousands of books were added to the library stock every year and thousands were borrowed by subscribers every year. Membership also continued to rise.
Universal Free Primary Education was introduced by the Gowon Administration. The scheme planned massive intakes in primary and secondary schools in Nigeria. In Kano State. The scheme was married to the progress already achieved in the 70-74 Development plan to enrol 15% of school aged children in the school. Renovation of many new schools and classes such that each child can attend a school within one mile of his residence. In the Kano state plan -20 new secondary schools were billed for construction, 7 technical and secondary schools for the handicapped. Increased grants were also to be given to seven voluntary Agency Schools. A total of 21,840 classes were to be constructed in primary schools and 974 in teacher training colleges. The gigantic plan was taken over by the Murtala Mohammed Regime.
By 1968 when the state was created, there were only five General hospitals, two health training institutions, twenty Doctors, 683 beds and three Government dispensaries.
The Ministry Of Health was set up to provide as quickly as possible, satisfactory preventive and curative health services within the reach of all members of the community to temper the existing dearth of the facilities at that time, the state government commenced construction of two more general hospitals, one each in Kazaure and Gumel to balance the unequitable distribution of city (murtala), nassarawa, Hadejia, Birnin kudu. The fifth early Hospital, Dambatta which was completed by the Northern Nigeria Government before the 1966 coup with Assistance from Canada was only commissioned by Govenor Bako in 1968. City hospital was immediately renovated and improved with the construction of 60 bed maternity wards, a nursery, an operating theatre, staff quarters and other amenities. The improvement was informed by the inadequacy of the hospital to cater for the deliveries of the ever-growing Kano metropolis, Women were said to deliver on thin mattresses spread on the floor, a health and medical auxiliaries training school was opened at infectious Diseases hospital on France road to train personnel for intermediate knowledge in caring for wounds and minor ailments.
Nassarawa, which was hitherto an exclusive hospital was turned into a government staff hospital in 1971 to cater for the staff of the state government that are rapidly growing in number, facilities provided by its expansion include a new out- patient department, private wards, VIP rooms, casualty theatre, Xray department, pharmacy, ante-natal, infant welfare and ophthalmic center, a resident doctors office was also provided. The present imposing structure that house most of the in-patients at the hospital was designed and planned for construction in the 3rd development plan, in fact, equipment were already purchased for the construction before the 1975 coup. Mortuary services equipment bought at that time are still not exhausted.
By 1972, five new general hospitals were opened in Kano, Gwarzo, Dawakin – kudu, Tiga and Wudil. Though Rano and Gwarzo were constructed by the ministry in 1969 as a health center and now upgraded to hospital. This gives a total of fourteen (14) hospitals and the distribution of hospitals had reached each administrative area in the state.
A Basic health program introduced by the Federal Government as recommended by the world Health organisation was commissioned in Kano in 1974. The program which was tagged the 1-4-32-1 formula entails the provision of Health facilities in each state through a square form with a Urban Health centre in the middle, each Health centre will have 32 beds and it co-ordinates the activities of four rural health centres situated at four equidistant parts of the planned area, from the centres. The 32 rural health clinics were to be distributed within the confines of the four centres. the last arm of the program is a mobile clinic which was to move round the provided villages to fill gaps and take care of complaints between the clinics and centres. The first set of four centres chosen was Kafin Hausa, Ringim, Kunchi and Bichi. The state has made plans to build all the Rural centres and clinics for the program within a short time, by 1975, only about 15 clinics and rural centres were completed when the in-coming administration abandoned it.
In Metropolitan Kano, the need arose for another large Hospital as Murtala (city) was proving inadequate. The idea of the present Aminu Kano teaching Hospital was then conceived, it was to be constructed at the present BUK permanent site on Gwarzo road and was to provide 500 beds. Four acres of land was provided and it will consist of a main administrative block and staff quarters, general out patient department, and maternity, it was then to cost state Government 35 million Naira. As a matter of fact survey work has been completed, the sum of N600,000 has been paid as compensation to farmers using the place.
The present site of the Hospital was meant for the school of Nursing and midwifery of the Hospital (as each General Hospital comes with its own). The former Zaria motor park adjacent the school was slated for the construction of Doctors quarters. Other places were also provided for Nurses, midwives and Hospital administrative staff. The present Dental clinic and new infections Diseases Hospital were also planned along with the Hospital, all these were included in the 3rd Development plan.
In the provision of Health posts, health units, centres and clinics, the state has been covered successfully, upgrading of health facilities took place within two years or less by the state Government. Tiga, Doguwa, Dawakin -Tofa and Tofa were health posts that were upgraded to health clinics in 1973, Bichi, Rano, Gumel, Mallam-Madori and Birniwa were health clinics turned health centres. Others were Ringim, Kura, Wudil, Dutse, Kunya, and Gwaram. New General hospitals were also planned for Babura and Jahun.
Area health units were also provided for each administrative area to take charge of preventive health services and provision of constant supervision on Health centres. The units take charge of spraying all nooks and corners with insecticides to get rid of mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and other harmful insects. Immunization was also taken seriously to deal with all major diseases, vaccinations were also done on patients of small pox, in fact, small pox was completely eradicated by 1970 with the help of the world Health Organisation. The organisation even fixed a prize money for any small pox case found in Kano. People were also inoculated for some diseases like cholera. The people of Kano remain living witnesses to all these efforts.
In the area of leprosy, the Yadakunya leprosy hospital, a missionary outfit was assisted by the state government financially, each time the Netherlands leprosy Doctors arrive, Governor Bako personally keeps in touch with them till they leave. Lectures were introduced for the lepers in order to educate them. They were sometimes taught even under trees but close to their homes so they don’t have to walk long distances. Due to his interest in the welfare of these disadvantaged people, Audu Bako planned for the take over of the leprosarium at Yadakunya. The plan was included in the 3rd National plan. Other areas of health that Kano benefitted during his time is the Malaria project of the World Health organisation. The organisation chose Nigeria as a case study and Kano state was chosen for the study. The project was aimed at a complete research into the activity of mosquitoes and the malaria parasite, experts were chosen from thirteen countries, the project involve the picking of mosquitoes after sucking blood from people in a natural setting. The scheme would be repelled in an average society of the 1970s as the experts enter bedrooms in the middle of the night when occupants were asleep, but true understanding of the people, could be explained as their own contribution to the all round acceptance of the project. Two areas, Kano and Garki were the centres used for the project.
Mosquitoes caught from either Garki village or Kano metropolis are taken straight to the Airport and flown to Rome(Italy) where the facilities are available for the research. The result of the research showed that only the anopheles mosquitoes carry the malaria parasite, and only an eight day old can carry the parasite therefore if the eight day old anopheles mosquitoes could be wiped out or stopped from carrying the parasite, the world will be free malaria.
Relics of the program exist in Kano and Garko, the school of Health technology is today situated in the building made for the project. With the development of Dams and water treatment plants, cases of Guinea worm and other water borne diseases suddenly plummeted as people now had potable water to drink. As a matter of fact, water borne diseases were not a problem to the state government as they do not proliferate at all.
In the provision of health personnel, Doctors were employed from abroad to augment locals, medical and paramedical staff of hospitals were also trained in crash programs
to contain the increase in patients ,by 1969, the health and medical auxiliaries training school was opened, Schools of Nursing were opened for General Hospitals in Birnin Kudu, Hadejia and Dambatta. A medical store was opened for the storage of vaccines and other drugs. The store came complete with modern facilities and a cold room. It is situated opposite Radio Kano.
COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY
Kano has been the commercial nerve centre of Northern Nigeria from time immemorial. This has accorded Kano people the flair for enterprise. So with the creation of a Ministry to take full charge of commerce and Industry when the state was created in 1968, Another milestone has been planted. There were only 65 industrial establishment then, located in the old Industrial estate along mission, club and maganda roads at bompai. This could not be said to be impressive, as six years earlier in 1962, when the first development plan commenced operation, there were 60 industries.
The state then had to invite external businessmen to visit Kano and take advantage of its economic potentialities, while also educating the local businessmen on the importance of investing in industry.
The state Government in 1970 sent an economic mission to visit five countries England, USA, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany, in order to explore the states industrial potential and to negotiate partnership with any interested industrialist who might be willing to come to Kano and establish their business. The team which was made up of the commissioner for finance, Aminu Dantata, secretary to the state Government Audi Howeidy, permanent secretary economic planning Aliyu Daneji, economic adviser M. M. Shazly and A. Sambo from Military Governors Office to serve as secretary, the commissioner for economic planning. Alhaji Aminu Dantata was the leader of the team Approximately twenty companies were visited within the twenty nine days of the trip. In all the teams General conclusion was that most of the foreign investors fear was related to the restriction order passed by Federal Government on foreign trade and exchange, or insecurity due to fear of nationalization as was common in African countries. They therefore urged on the state Government to call on the Federal Government to relax the order. The missions success was accentuated by the Governments promulgation of the antagonization decree of 1972. Which spelt out that expatriates can form companies in association with Nigerians on a 60-40 participation for large scale. 40-60 for medium and 0-100 for small scale business concerns respectively. This dispelled the fear of the prospective investors.
The huge response from the companies led to the closure of the Bompai Industrial Estate, before then, Raleigh, flour mills, an aluminium company, mentholatum and Glucose manufacturing, agric machinery and others were conceived. Local businessmen also responded to Governments call by establishing companies; maktaba printing press, Mainasara and sons, Nigeria Industrial group company, Nigerian suiting manufacturers. Northern states Development corporation.
As a result of the congestion at Bompai, Government commissioned the challawa and sharada Industrial Estates. It could be observed that the development of Kano demands this expansion, as even the railway lines made for the Bompai have now constituted an eyesore for road Traffic on central Hotel-Audu Bako way round-about. Hadejia road and Murtala Mohammed way. The Bompai Industrial area had also toxicated Jakara River and Dam completely. The two Industrial estates were situated by the Kaduna-Kano railway line for easy on-loading and off-loading of Industrial material requirements, the two industrial estate were also situated close to the challawa River. Drainage systems were supplied before lands were allocated, all other services were also provided; roads, electricity and water. The Challawa industrial estate was situated along the challawa river, so that effluent of wet Industries like Tanneries and soft drink manufacturers could be easily contained while Dry Industries were given the Sharada which was far away from the river as their need was only of minor drainage systems. By 1975, There were over 100 Industrial establishments in Kano.
The Kano state Investments limited was set up under provision of the company Decree of 1968. It was set up in October 1971 and became certificated in February 1972.
The company was set up with a capital of half a million Pounds to carry on the bossiness of assisting entrepreneurs engaged in Industry, Commerce and Agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources. The company was also mandated to create and modernise business that fall under its objective areas. Some of the objectives of the company include contributing towards further stimulation of Industrial and commercial growth of Kano. By way of direct equity investments, provision of medium and long term loans for suitable projects and provision of technical assistance to indigenous local entrepreneurs. The company also assist them to adopt modern approaches to investments.
With the Establishment of the company many manufacturing concerns were set up and shares were acquired in quoted and unquoted companies. It was evident though at that time that the people of Kano state do not buy shares. So the company had to buy shares in companies on behalf of the people of the state. The company also gave out loans to small scale Industrialists and co-operative associations up to 1974 when the cooperative Bank was set up.
By 1975, the Kano state Government through the KSIL had become shareholder in many companies and had even become major share holder in many others. In all, Kano state become part owner in thirty one companies including, Nigeria suiting manufacturers, seven up, BEWAC, Fawaz steel wood, Leventis motors, Leventis stores, and Northern Nigeria flour mills, others include:-
Kano state oil and allied products ltd.
Cinema Distribution circuit ltd.
Kano Citizens trading company.
Kano Midwest co. ltd
Kano Entertainment co ltd.
Nigeria Electrical fittings ltd.
Kano State insurance co ltd.
Nigeria Victory Assurance co ltd
B.K.L Building and civil Engineering co ltd
Continental lines (shipping)
Northern sawmill and furniture manufacturing. co ltd.
Balmore Trading co ltd.
Steel Constructions co ltd.
Northern Steel ltd.
Aluminium Products ltd.
United Nigeria textiles ltd.
R.T. Briscoe ltd.
Cement co. of Northern Nigeria ltd.
Stirling Astaldi Nigeria ltd.
Oil Transport company ltd.
Nigeria Hotels ltd.
Kano Dying and printing. ltd.
Bank of the North ltd.
Kano State was also able to fully own: twelve establishments. These are:-
Kano state Investments co. ltd.
Kundila Housing Estate.
Donbar Air conditioning and Refrigeration services.
Textile commodities ltd.
Kano Textile printers.
Kano state Ginnery.
The Hotel Group.
Bagauda lake Hotel.
Kano state Hotel.
Magwan Water Restaurant.
Kano cooperative shop.
General Mining Company.
In the area of co-operative societies, the state inherited hundreds on its creation. So the state encouraged them by offering specialised advise and loans for various projects they wish to undertake. The state also continued to create facilities which enhance the growth of such cooperative societies to a stage of self sufficiency. In order for the state to encourage the spirit of enterprise among the societies, cooperative shops were opened at Kazaure, Dambatta, Hadejia, Rano, Gwarzo, Birnin Kudu, Kiyawa, Jahun, Doguwar-giginya, Dutse, Tudun Wada and Gumel. A large superstore was also opened in Kano to serve the interest of these cooperative societies. The Cooperative Bank (now Tropical Commercial Bank) was set up in 1974. Cooperative societies have shares in it and it in turn provides them with Agricultural loans and Produce purchase advance to market their products. Other loans given them include:
Cultivation loans, fertilizer loans, livestock development loans, consumer Trading, and drought relief.
In the Commerce sector, the state organises seminars and public enlightenment campaigns to the business community on trade activities. The state also promote internal- external trade and create facilities to enhance promotion.
The state was committed to foreign and indigenous investors in terms of provision of facilities and other forms of assistance to foreign investors, sometimes by bringing them into contact with local businessmen who they may wish to join in partnerships.
The organising of Trade fairs and settling of Trade dispute between shareholders and companies are other areas of the state Government assistance through its Commerce Ministry.
In conclusion it would be worthy of note that Alhaji Aminu Dantata was the only commissioner to have sponsored the whole staff of his Ministry to pilgrimage (from his pocket) to Saudi Arabia in three batches, non Muslims in the Ministry were given cash equivalents of what the Muslim were given.
This area is a major interest of Alhaji Bako. For he is a man who thinks ahead. He considered what Kano would be twenty years later without any recreational facility. He was reported to move around Kano mostly without his driver to see for himself what happens in Kano. At one of such wanderings, he noticed that the people of Kano stay out doors mostly in the evenings, sometime friends park by road sides and spread their mats to rest. That was why he planned the amusement park which was later considered a prestige project and consequently abandoned. The Kano stadium plan which the writer has seen is also lying waste, preparations were in high gear to construct it a 35.400 seater, the stadium was to cost the state about N2.0m. Many other projects of Audu Bako remained a dream. But even then, a lot has been achieved by him in this area. Audu Bako is a man who combined service delivery with bossiness enterprise he never want to leave a project idle. That was why most of the water resource projects in Kano provide more than just water. Bagauda the first water supply Dam for Kano metropolis gulped about 400,000 pounds so in order to recover the money in earnest, Audu conceived the idea of a Hotel on a flat turf by the Dam. It was named Bagauda lake Hotel N3.5m was spent to provide 348 rooms, a conference Hall which Hosts national and international conferences, modern facilities for entertainment, sports and recreation, Donkeys, Horses and camels were provided for interested guests to ride. The 310 acre Hotel also has an 80 seater restaurant block, 4 VIP suites to accommodate 16 people, 50 round Huts with accommodation capacity of 200, double and 25 pairs of single chalets to accommodate 132 guests, a 100ft 6- lane swimming pool with underwater lights. The Night club offers a panoramic view of the lake, sandy beach Marina, centre and Holiday resort itself, an open air theatre with a seating capacity of 462, a kiosk accommodating a boutique, beauty salon, barbers shop and a bank all fully air conditioned. The Hotel also has a laundry, police station, workshops, radio room. 138 junior staff Houses, 17 police staff houses, and 2 Senior staff Houses. The Hotel has a good network of roads and drives its own water supply and filtration system. There is also a Golf course, children pool, riding school, offices and library.
This Hotel had enjoyed the privilege of paying itself many times over. The state Government had therefore accepted Bagauda as a revenue earner for the state Government. Bagauda will forever be remembered as the tourist eye-catcher in Kano.
Magwan water restaurant was designed along with a 1 million gallon water tank, The enterprising Bako thought it unwise to waste the tank, and the area for the tank had to be opened for traffic because it was all bush hence the construction of Audu Bako way. So the restaurant consisting of a bar, confectionery and restaurant were constructed around the tank at a larger circumference and suspended above the ground. The siting, on a rocky area on the highest point of western Kano in a 50 acre site, caters for some 300 visitors fully air conditioned. The premises was finished to a high standard with landscaped gardens surrounding it with the provision of children playground. The project, completed June 1973 cost the state government 450.000.
Magwan swimming pools, situated in the same complex with the magwan restaurant has 4 pools, 7ft main, 144 diving, 4ft non swimmer and 2ft children pool changing room and toilet facilities to cater for 600 visitors, together with a garden bar. The project also cost the state 240.660.
The dual services were provided with floodlights, a transformer and an electricity generator. The initial basis of the restaurant, the tank is now idle, it was used to store and distribute water to nassarawa, G.R.A. hotoro and other areas in that direction but today even the restaurant facility it self does not have water, within 500 meters radius has been suffering from water shortage for ages now. The swimming pools are virtually empty. The place is now a shadow of its former self, in its heydays, the place was a jump 24 hours a day but due to dwindling services, lack of constant supply of water, it no more is, rust is everywhere in the facility. State governments that follow were more concerned with starting new projects than maintaining old ones.
Catering rest houses built in administrative headquarters were also Audu Bako’s brainchild. Important visitors to the administrative areas must be accommodated in special guest houses, so the idea of constructing the rest houses was immediately realized, Hadejia, Birnin kudu, Kazaure, Gumel, and Karaye got one each. Each of the facility contains 14 bedrooms, 80 seat restaurant, service block, lounge and bar each cost the state government 106,000 pounds
The Kano State Hotel, (Daula) was conceived at a time when accommodation facilities for government and commercial representatives visiting Kano as a commercial center and tourist attraction was increasing by the day. The hotel was therefore constructed to serve this purpose. containing a reception, lounge, bar, restaurant, conference room ,night club and kitchen etc, two storey bedroom block containing 192 bedrooms with bathrooms for VIP accommodation, self contained units and swimming pool are also provided. The project was completed in 1975 at a cost of 2.8m.
Tiga Rock Castle Hotel was primarily built to accommodate the Queen of England who’s visit was billed for 1975 and her first port of call was to be Kano. The facility was constructed on a hill overlooking tiga dam, a perfect view! the facility was changed to a hotel after the 1975 coup which led to the postponement of the queens visit.
The transit pilgrims camp is the first attempt to provide intending pilgrims with suitable transit accommodation. The construction was completed in 1972 and utilized up to date. It contains 130 housing units, each comprised three rooms, kitchen, bath, latrine and an enclosed courtyard. The unit is designed to cater for 10 persons, roof overhangs, pedestrian walks were also made.
The entire grouping of the houses is made around a large central space with a covered market place where occupant can purchase what they need and where traders can display their wares, at the right side of the camp, a dispensary was provided to provide patients with necessary medical treatment.
Rest parks throughout the G.R.A were constructed during his tenure and they depict his interest in recreation.
Social welfare structures were in existence before the 1966 coup. The Tudun maliki refomery school was established in the 1950’s by the Kano Native Authority. The same goes for the Dawakin kudu leprosy center, Bichi blind centre and Dorayi destitute centre, the then shahuci blind center was converted in 1960’s to the shahuchi old people’s home to cater for out -patients of murtala hospital who came from far away and had to stay a number of days in Kano.
With the change of government and the subsequent creation of state. the former N.A social welfare office was merged with the newly created ministry of health to form ministry of health and social welfare. The social welfare office at that time had 10 members of staff consisting of one senior social welfare officer, five social welfare assistants, one clerk one messenger and two stadium assistants.
In 1968, social welfare office was moved along with the ministry of health to the Nigerian Marketing Board building at post office road because of the expansion of the office as emergency relief, pilgrims welfare and child welfare all became part of the responsibilities of the social welfare division . The responsibilities of the three units that had bolstered the image of the division were extricated from it by later governments. Though the emergency relief agency was introduced in the state by federal government design in 1973.
In the area of begging, government was keenly interested from the scratch. in his maiden address, the military governor pointed out that people must watch “the indolent people who feel complacent by living only on charity, it is people who belong to this group that we must awaken from their slumber and insist on their doing a good days job before they could earn their living. I am not of course having in mind those who are in one way or the other incapacitated, for the lame and blind, my government will explore ways and means of giving them the best possible assistance”.
Exactly 2 months after his maiden address, a Kano community chest was introduced and donation from philanthropic individual amounting to 7,500 pounds was collected with intent on clearing beggars off streets. The launching was chaired by the Emir of Kano. A year later in July 1969 the governor called for the introduction of annual levies on taxable adults to get enough money for the activities of the National Society for the Welfare of the Disabled. Moves like this were not usually supported by the people of the state because of the near reverence they give to the begging culture and Alhaji Audu, being more democratic then autocratic always considered the general feeling of the state in all matters that affect them, may be that explain why begging still pervade our daily life.
Before the arrival of Beth Torrey, an American, mentally retarded children were neglected in the society. some of them are even considered “yan ruwa” (water spirits) and disposed off but she arrived and went round the Kano province and beyond to collect this children and take care of them. By 1970, her house could not contain her, she therefore sought state government assistance which was immediately granted. She was moved to Tudun maliki reformery school while the school was asked to move to kwalli, the site of the present VVF center.
In 1971 the state government realise that running cost for the three rehabilitation center at destitutes home Dorayi, home for the blind Bichi and lepers home Dawakin Kudu were becoming higher and could not be borne by the native authority much longer, so the governor took over the three offices, and the children home in order to ensure continuity of the office. After careful assessment, expansion Gwarzo, Dambatta and Birnin Kudu. But Gumel, Kazaure and Gyadi-gyadi were to be built as second phase, each of the building consisted of six offices, two conference rooms and other necessary facilities. The programme was to build one office in metropolitan Kano and other offices in each administrative area. The design of the office was made to accommodate 14 officers and provide ancillary facilities. The community halls accommodate one hundred. The fagge welfare office was constructed and commissioned in 1972.
Inmates of the rehabilitation center were fed three times a day and given allowances. To perfect government activity regarding the destitute in the state, a census was conducted in the same year (1971)to ascertain their number and see possible ways of centralising their activities into the mainstream of government plans and activities. census results showed that Kano had 67,601 destitutes including handicapped, homeless and abandoned babies.
Audu Bako’s interest in almost every sphere of life can be attributed to his attention to the social welfare sector, he was once said to have visited Dorayi center, seen the condition of inmates and immediately ordered the custom department to distribute bales of seized 2nd hand cloths to the inmates of all rehabilitation centres.
THE PRICE OF THEIR EFFORTS
Audu Bako was to spend only a day in detention following the coup of July 29th in which the government was toppled, he immediately moved into his house at Durbin Katsina road(presently occupied by KASEPPA) when one day he was suddenly told to move out as the house has been confiscated by the government. Audu moved to Kaduna where he settled in his Aliyu makama road residence, from here also he was moved,he moved to the Buruku farm which he owned since 1957, that was confiscated. Infact Audu Bako was said to have decided to stay and face the worst, but was re-convinced to move by his lawyer daughter, Fati, he stayed temporarily at his sardauna crescent residence but the place was too small so he decided to move to his farm at Danmarke and by then he had become almost empty handed, he had only his sardauna crescent house. In the farm he lived till he died in 1980.
When he reached Danmarke, the chief of the town gave Audu his daughter Kuburatu to marry,she was with him when he died. Audu, a hardworking man by all standards started work on the place, and before long it had developed into a large farm, which also houses furniture making department and a mechanic workshop.
THE COMMISSIONS OF INQUIRY
The Assets investigation panel which probed Audu Bako and his lieutenants completed its report and its recommendations to the Government were: That among his assets, Audu Bako should retain 6 plots that he declared, 2 in Kano, 2 in Sokoto and 2 in Gusau. He is also to keep four out of his seven declared houses, He was to retain his three farms at Danmarke, Tiga and Buruku. The houses, plots and farms were in the opinion of the panel genuinely acquired. It was later that the Federal Government turned the tables around and wrote-off most of this legitimately acquired assets as illegitimate and confiscated them. It should be put on record that Audu Bako was rich right from the start, being the son of the first most senior African in the police force, second, being a bona fide farmer with farms since he started work as a police man. It was gathered from one of his eldest children, that he used to take them to his farm in Kasuwar Magani in Kaduna state in their early years. Fati, now a magistrate, his second child was only twelve when Audu Bako bought the Buruku farm and she was a student of law when he became a governor. Ten years is enough for a farm to develop to any level of greatness and it did as even before becoming a governor, Audu has almost a hundred cows, and multiples of sheeps and goats, a fully developed poultry pen apart from the greens. While the Assets Investigation Panel recommends that he retains the farm, another Commission says he must return to the Government about 13,000 as services of Government properly on his farm. Further inquiry reveals that Audu Bako never used a single Government tractor on his farm as he has many already in his farm, commenting on this ,a farm hand said Tractors and other equipment were bought from BEWAC & J Allen in Kaduna from proceeds accruing from the sale of cotton. Before the tractors, ox-driven carts were used. Today Buruku has been completely vandalised.
The Tiga Farm was where Audu Bako had so much difficulty, when he first saw the place he inquired from the P.W.D and it was surveyed, it was found that 16 people cultivate the place, these were compensated. Twice later 31 and 40 people came and said they owned lands there and Audu compensated them. This was how he owned Tiga, and the valuation of lands were done by the P.W.D, the Greatness of the Tiga was to start when livestock were moved from the Buruku in Kaduna to Tiga Kano as Rinderpest was affecting the cows.
Audu Bako lost all his undeclared assets which include other houses, Commercial property and shares with the exception of two plots one in Onitsha and another in Lokoja given to him by the governors of the areas, but still, it was surprising that even though the panel recommended that Audu Bako retain all his declared shares, he was not to enjoy their benefit for the remainder of his life.
In the Kano state owned organisation and companies commission of inquiry, Audu Bako’s Government, which within the seven years of its reign succeeded in owning partially 31 fully 12 companies. (ref. – commerce and industry) was de-merited by the panel and considered most of the companies weak. Audu Bako and his respective commissioners were ordered to return huge sums of money for the weakness of the companies, as it was put, the companies were weak as a result of the interference of the government officials. Other commissions of inquiry were set up for each of the Ministries of Agriculture and National resources, Finance, Health and social welfare and Education. The Tenders Board also got a commission of inquiry.
HIS CABINET MEMBERS
On the 19th of March 1976, a panel was set up by Governor Sani Bello to examine the assets of some public officers in the Audu Bako Government. The panel submitted its report on the 30th of June 1976, and government views on the report were printed by the Government printer, Kano in May 1977.
The intent of the report as was stated was not to Witch hunt or create undue hardship to any Public officer. The Government also agreed not to deprive officers of any assets which were acquired legally and does not appear to be in excess of his legitimate earnings (Salaries and allowances) in fact officers were expected to save 20% of their incomes. Government also took cognisance of other legitimate sources of income of the persons concerned.
In all 25 people were examined out of which eight(8)including 3 former commissioners and two permanent secretaries were to retain their assets as their expenditure over income was not high. However 16 others were axed and most of their property confiscated. The five longest serving commissioners and reputedly the Governors closest were among the 16. Alhaji Inuwa Dutse for example had three houses, 2 of these were confiscated, and shares in four companies bought through loans were confiscated. Alhaji Sani Gezawa lost the only house mentioned in the report as his, and shares acquired through loans. Alhaji Gauyama had three houses out of which two were confiscated, Audi Howeidy lost the houses he had in Kano. Muhammadu Kazaure lost two out of three houses and shares in six companies. Alhaji Tanko Yakasai lost three out of four houses and all his shares.
The Question of objectivity in examining the accused persons has become highly tenable due to a number of reasons.
(1) Permanent secretaries were the accounting officers of ministries, they sign cheques and issue orders, but it was surprising to see that only three permanent secretaries were examined. And in these, one was exonerated, one not examined as done for others while the third did not loose anything.
(2) Life savings of all office holders did not start in the period under review 1968-75.All of the commissioners have some level of success before appointment, some were politicians, others businessmen who have spent at least 25 years in the service of their motherland before appointment, so this exposes the 20% saving of all public officers from date of appointment as a weak theory. As opposed to the permanent secretaries most of whom were on acting capacity when the state was created, so the 20% theory would have fitted them like a globe.
(3) Some of the officers in question have revenue generating properties even before being appointed, how does the revenue accruing from such ventures get accounted for in the 20% theory?
I would want to correct the Misconception that the officers of Audu Bako and himself are criminals, their examination was based on politics in order to give the incumbent government some level of legitimacy, the preceding one most be discredited, but the extent that was undertaken to achieve this was unfair for as far as I can see, Audu Bako and his cabinet were at least much closer to being legitimate than any other. Even the fact that no permanent secretary was found to be corrupt, is enough reason to justify that these people lived above board.
(4) It has also been confirmed that landed property of the accused persons were gravely devaluated, this may be seen to be with the intent of squeezing out of them excess of expenditure over income, else how could one explain that one of Inuwa Dutse’s houses 14A Sokoto road on rent for N9,000 per annum could be valued at 15,000.Another, 14B which was already occupied by a tenant was written as uncompleted.
In all, 7 of out 14 commissioners were examined and four were punished; out of about 30 permanent secretaries, five were examined all were acquitted, 13 other officers of the state were examined, including 2 General Managers, those of Rural Electrification, and Transport Corporation. The latter was to refund N859 excess of expenditure over income while the former was to refund N50,000. The chairman of the State Metropolitan Board, Alh. Umaru Yola was acquitted.
Three Expatriates examined along with other officers include Joseph Farah the General Manager of the state investment limited, who was said to have N18,000 as against a total income of N19,000, but since the panel was not able to lay hand on any other information, Government let him off the hook. From London, the panel confirmed that Mr.P.D sharma, Chief Animal Husbandry Officer at A.L.D.A had N44.00 in his account, that was translated to mean the money was in excess of his income, government recommendation says, the money must have been “acquired through dubious ways”,no further action though was taken against Mr. Sharma. Mr. Hans Willi was the managing Director of the State Oil Mills. He was branded as cunning by the panel, as they were unable to establish anything bad against him and recommended to the Government to deport him from the country, government commented that since Willi had left the country, banning him from returning into Nigeria will be vigorously pursued.
This gave a sum total of all those whose assets were investigated in the Audu Bako Government. There were however other subordinate Officers who were also tried. But we are more concerned with high office holders, we must rate them at least above average. Since the panel has apparently cleared them. If 3/4 of Audu Bakos assets were returned to him, and if 3/4 of his Commissioners were clean, and if no permanent secretary was axed, and only head of parasatals was found wanting. Then it would not have been fair for these people if Government deliberately made them to suffer societal disrespect and rejection. The people who made Kano State as we known it, more then sixty percent of all infrastructures of today, twenty years after they left were their efforts. I reliably gathered that some of the children of Audu were even orally molested after the inquiries, and their father called terrible names, in fact, the whole family had to go through emotional Torment such that his daughter had to seek transfer of service to Sokoto State, where she now works, as the discomfort was getting too much.
It was Governor Idris Garba who in 1990 set up a committee to plan a relief package for the family of Audu Bako. After considering the injustices done to them. The committee made many recommendations which include the settlement of N500,000 debt to banks incurred by Audu Bako in his lifetime. The committee also recommended that the efforts of the State Government to rehabilitate the name of Audu Bako should continue.
Issues like these and complaints from concerned peoples and the families of the 1975 coup victims broke the heart of former president Ibrahim Babangida and on the 23rd of August 1993 he signed the forfeiture of Assets Decree. (No 54 of 1993) the contents of the Decree made it clear that properties of such peoples which were confiscated, be released. He received alot of commendation from well wisher for that singular attempt at recognising the patriotism and selfless services offered the country by those affected.
What had Audu Bako benefited from becoming Governor of Kano State? Nothing but sacrifice when he was in and untold hardship when he left. It is clear that the Federal Government had not been fair to him, who gave his best service and got nothing but pain in return. But what does this portend for future executives other than for them to amass wealth by all means in order to secure their future. The hue and cry on corruption today probably emanated from that scenario. I believe this work will serve to teach not only governments but the general public to better appreciate leaders when those leaders could use it.
Radio Nigeria Kaduna
Tribute to Audu Bako A special program 4/2/80.
Ta’aziyyar Marigayi Audu Bako An Hausa version of the above.
Maiden Message to the people
of Kano State By Alhaji Audu Bako 30/3/68.
Presentation of Gold Medal
to Audu Bako By Lebanese Ambassador in Nigeria, Mr. Habis on 1/11/74.
Interview with the Military
Governor of Kano State. “Meeting Point” 1969.
Interview with Audu Bako over
his seized farm. 23/10/75.
Ministry of Information Publications (Kano)
– Kano State in brief – 1988
– Kano State A giant leap – 1981
– Kano State Handbook – undated
– This is Kano State, 20 years of progress
– Kano State Handbook – 1991.
– Policy Statements – 1969-’70, ’70/’71, ’71/’72, ’72/’73, ’73/’74.
– First National Development Plan, 1962-1968.
– Second National Development Plan, 1970-1974.
– Third National Development and Reconstruction Plan, 1975-1980.
– Kano State Development Plan, 1970-1974.
– Forfeiture of Assets Decree 54 of 23/8/93.
– The New Nigerian Newspapers, Man of Destiny of 5/2/68.
– The New Nigerian Newspapers, Dams by Magaji Abdullahi, 1-2/8/89.
– Ten years of rural electrification in Kano State, 1975-1983
– A Business Directory of Kano State, Vol.1 No. 1, 1973.
– Kano State, 1968-1974. M.O.W. and S.
– Education Statistics for Kano State, M.O.E.
– Report on Kano State Economic Mission abroad.
– Briefs on Challawa Gorge Dam.
– Briefs on the activities of Kano State, 1968-1979, compiled for civilian administration.
– The Tenure of my office, Lest We Forget by Audu Bako, 1968-1974. (Unpublished Diary).
– Industrial Potentialities of Northen Nigeria.
– Metropolitan Kano by B. A. W. Trevallion.
– Tarihin Garin Kaduna by Yusuf Nadabo.
– Makers of Modern Africa, know Africa Series.
– Africa South of the Sahara, Europa Publications, 1994.